Monday, 23 June 2014


Derived from the Greek word “communicare” or “communico” which means “to share”.
Community implies a group of people living in one place. Languages are the codes of communications.

Definitions of communication
Communication is a process, that a transfer of meaning from one mind to another or each party influences the other.  Communication is a dynamic process.  Communication involves common experience and mutual influence.  This process has no beginning or end and is ever changing, dynamic, and mutual.

Types of communication.
(1)   verbal communication.
(2)   Non-verbal communication.
  Two types of verbal communication.
(1)   Formal communication.
Formal communication:We use this type of communication in offices and social gathering.
Two types of formal communication.
a.       (1) Downward
b.      (2) Upward
Downward  communication. :
Higher designation to lower designation.Ex. Boss ordered his worker.
Here effect of this type of communication is very much than upward communication.

Upward communication.
Lower designation to higher designation. Ex. Worker request to his boss.
Here the effect of communication is less
than downward communication.

(2)   informal communication. We use this type of communication with our family or friends.
Three types of informal communication

Lateral communication.
Found among members working at the same level.Ex. Peer group.
Most effective form of communication.
Barrier of subordinates or boss is not
present here.

Diagonal communication.
In Diagonal communication the path is mixture of vertical and horizontal movement.
In large communications various departments need communication support from each other.

Grapevine communication.
           Also called as “backbiting” or“backstabbing”.A backstabber is a colleague or an employee who acts like a friend in public but badmouth you in private.

Non-verbal communication :Through signs & symbols. It can go without verbal communication.
Nonverbal communications  include all forms of communication that are not part of the
language that we speak or write. There are many ways that  we reveal ourselves nonverbally This text will concentrate  on the three areas of nonverbal communication that will  most likely affect contract negotiations:
• Body language (kinesic communication) using facial  expressions, body movements, gestures, and posture; 
• Physical environment (proxemic communication) using  available space, distance from or proximity to other  people, and territorial control; and
• Personal attributes such as:  o Physical appearance (artifactual communication) including all options that communicators use to  modify their appearance;
·         Vocal cues (auditory communication); and   Touch (tactile communication) particularly the  handshake.

Conscious or Subliminal Messages. Nonverbal communications  can involve conscious or subliminal messages.