Monday, 30 June 2014

ரோமானிய நாடக வரலாறு

கிரேக்க நாடக வரலாறு

Greek theatre

  • Most Greek cities had a theatre. It was in the open air, and was usually a bowl-shaped arena on a hillside. Some theatres were very big, with room for more than 15,000 people in the audience.
    All the actors were men or boys. Dancers and singers, called the chorus, performed on a flat area called the orchestra. Over time, solo actors also took part, and a raised stage became part of the theatre. The actors changed costumes in a hut called the "skene". Painting the walls of the hut made the first scenery.
    The plays were comedies (funny, often poking fun at rulers) or tragedies (sad and serious, with a lesson about right and wrong).        
  • Greek actors wore masks, made from stiffened linen, with holes for eyes and mouth. Actors also wore wigs. They wore thick-soled shoes too, to make them look taller, and padded costumes to make them look fatter or stronger. The masks showed the audience what kind of character an actor was playing (sad, angry or funny). Some masks had two sides, so the actor could turn them round to suit the mood for each scene.The best actors and play writers were awarded prizes - a bit like the Hollywood Oscars and BAFTAs today. The most famous writers of plays were Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides fortragedy and Aristophanes for comedy

 கி.மு. ஆறாம் நூற்றாண்டுக் காலப்பகுதியில்  பார்வையாளர்கள் மலைச்சரிவுகளில் இருக்க அச்சரிவுகளின் அடிவாரத்தில் நாடக நடிகர்களின் அரங்கம் இருந்தது. காட்சிக்கான பின்னணி (திரைச்சீலை) அக்காலகட்டத்தில் இல்லையென்பதும் குறிப்பிடத்தக்கது.

காட்சி வீடு

கி.மு. ஜந்து - நான்காம் நூற்றாண்டு காலப்பகுதியில் நடனமாடும் இடம் என அழைக்கப்பெற்ற 'காட்சி வீடு' போன்ற அமைப்பிலான அரங்கம் பார்வையாளர்கள் அமருவதற்கு வசதியாக மலைகளில் கற்களால் கட்டப்பெற்றன. 
'மன்னர் இடிஃபஸ்' என்ற நாடகம் அரங்கேற்றப்பட்ட வேளை இருபுறம் அமைந்த செவ்வக வடிவத்தினை உடைய கட்டிடம் பின்னணியாக அமைக்கப்பட்டது. இவ்வடிவமைப்பே பின்னாட்களில் அனைத்து நாடகங்களிலும் பயன்படுத்தப்பட்டது.  ஒவ்வொரு ஆண்டும், ஒவ்வொரு நாடகத்திற்கேற்றாற்போல மாற்றி அமைக்கப்பட்டதெனவும் கருத்து நிலவுகின்றது.

திறந்த வெளி நாடகங்கள்

பெரும்பாலான கிரேக்க நாடகங்கள் திறந்த வெளியிலேயே நடந்தது.  சோபகிள்ஸ்' என்பவர் படைத்த நாடகமொன்றில் மூன்று ஆண்கள் மட்டுமே பங்குபெற்று நடித்தனர். இவர்களில் சிலர் பெண் வேடமிட்டும் நடித்தனர்.கிரேக்க நாடகத்தின் வீழ்ச்சி

கி.மு. மூனறாம் நூற்றாண்டு காலப்பகுதியில் ரோமானியப் பேரரசன் மாவீரன் அலெக்ஸாண்டரின் படையெடுப்பிற்குப் பின்னர் கிரேக்க நாடகம் பெரு வீழ்ச்சியினை அடைந்தது. கி.மு. 200 ஆம் ஆண்டளவில் கிரேக்க நாடகம் முற்றிலுமாக மறைந்ததென்பது குறிப்பிடத்தக்கது. 

Sunday, 29 June 2014


Several principles are essential to an understanding of human communication in all its forms.

Communication is Purposeful
We communicate for a purpose; some motivation leads  us to communicate. When we speak or write, we are  trying to send some message and trying to accomplish some goal
five general purposes seem relatively common to all forms of communication:
to learn: to acquire knowledge of others, the world, and ourself
to relate: to form relationships with others,
to interact with others as individuals
to help: to assist others by listening, offering solutions
to influence: to strengthen or change the attitudes or behaviors of others
to Entertain: to enjoy the experience of the moment

Communication is Transactional
Communication is transactional, which means that the elements in communication

(1)   Always changing,: It’s an ongoing activity; all the elements of communication are in a state of constant change. The people with whom we are  communicating are  changing, and our environment is changing. Nothing in communication ever remains static.

(2) Interdependent (each influences the other): Each element relates integrally to every other element. For example, there can be no source without a receiver.

(3) Depend on the individual : Communication is influenced by a multitude of factors such as context, our history, past experiences, attitudes, cultural beliefs, self-image, future expectations, emotions, and our psychological climate.

(4)Each person in the communication act is both speaker and listener : Each person is an interaction is both sender and receiver.

Communication is a Package of Signals
Communication involve usually, verbal and nonverbal behaviors. Our entire body works together— verbally and non verbally—to express our thoughts and feelings.  The socially acceptable message is usually communicated verbally while the less socially acceptable message is communicated non verbally.

Communication is a Process of Adjustment
Communication can take place only to the extent that the communicators use the same system of signals.You will only be able to communicate with another person to the extent that our language systems overlap.  In reality, however, no two persons use identical signal systems, so a process of adjustment is relevant to all forms of communication.

Communication is Ambiguous
Ambiguous messages are messages with more than one potential meaning. Sometimes this ambiguity
occurs because we use words that can be interpreted differently. 

Communication is Punctuated
Communication events are continuous transactions.There’s no clear-cut beginning or ending. We divide up this continuous, circular process into causes and effects, or stimuli and responses.

Communication is Inevitable, Irreversible, and Unrepeatable
Communication is a process that is inevitable, irreversible, and unrepeatable. Communication messages
are always being sent, and  response, and it communicates.

Right To Freedom

Freedom is the basic characteristic of a true democracy. Our Constitution guarantees to the citizens of India a set of six freedoms described as the “Right to Freedom”.
Right to Freedom
The Constitution guarantees the following six  fundamental Freedoms:
(i) Freedom of speech and expression.
(ii) Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms.
(iii) Freedom to form associations or unions.
(iv) Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India
(v) Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
(vi) Freedom to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
(I) Freedom of Speech And Expression
It is an important freedom. This freedom ensures free and frank speech, discussion and exchange of opinions. It includes the freedom of the press. However these freedom like freedom of speech and expression are not absolute. The state is empowered to impose reasonable restrictions on the exercise of this right in the interest of security of the state, ethipublic order, morality etc.
freedom of speech and expression are not absolute. The state is empowered to impose reasonable restrictions on the exercise of this right in the interest of security of the state, public order, morality etc.source

Wednesday, 25 June 2014


The Fundamental Rights as one of the salient features of the Constitution which are incorporated in chapler III of the Constitution. It is protected by judicial system of the country concerned. Their violation, even by the State, is not allowed by the courts.

The enforcement of Fundamental Rights is ensured through High Courts and the Supreme Court.

Meaning And Importance Of Fundamental Rights
The rights, which are enshrined in the Constitution, are called ‘Fundamental Rights’. These rights ensure the fullest physical, mental and moral development of every citizen.
Fundamental Rights provide standards of conduct, citizenship, justice and fair play. They serve as a check on the government.
In our Constitution, Fundamental Rights are enumerated in Part III from Article 14 to 32.

These rights are justifiable.
Justifiable: Justifiable means that if these rights are violated by the government or
anyone else, the individual has the right to approach the Supreme Court or High Courts for the protection of his/her Fundamental Rights. Our Constitution does not permit the legislature and the executive to control these rights  either by law or by an executive order.

 Some of the Fundamental Rights are also enjoyed by foreigners, for example, the Right to Equality before Law and Right to Freedom of Religion are enjoyed by both i.e. citizens as well as foreigners.

The Fundamental Rights though justifiable are not absolute. The Constitution empowers the government to impose certain restrictions on the enjoyment of our rights in the interest of public good.

Seven Fundamental Rights were enshrined in the Constitution of India.  
However the Right to Property was removed from the list of Fundamental Rights by the 44th  Amendment Act of the Constitution in the year 1976. 

There are now six Fundamental Rights.
The Fundamental Rights are: -
Ø  Right to Equality
Ø  Right to Freedom
Ø  Right against Exploitation
Ø  Right to Freedom of Religion
Ø  Cultural and Educational Rights, and
Ø  Right to Constitutional Remedies.

Recently by the 86th  Amendment Act, the Right to Education has been included in the list of Fundamental Rights as part of the Right to Freedom by adding Article 21(A).

Tuesday, 24 June 2014

The Forms of Human Communication

The  forms of human communication, which can vary from intra person communication, with  mass communication, and computer mediated communication).

1.Intrapersonal Communication

Intra personal communication is communication  with ourself. Through interpersonal communication we  talk with, learn about, and judge ourself. We persuade our self of this or that, reason about possible decisions to make, and rehearse messages that We  plan to send to others. In intra personal
communication we might, wonder how we will do our Visual communication studies and what we  could have done differently. It is Increasing our self-awareness, our mindfulness,and our ability to think critically about all types of messages will aid us greatly in improving our own intra personal communication.
2. Interpersonal Communication
Interpersonal communication is communication between two persons or among a small group of persons. Most often, the communication emphasized in the study of interpersonal communication is communication of a continuing personal nature; it’s communication between or among intimates or those involved in close relationships—friends,  family, and coworkers, for example. These relationships are interdependent, meaning that the actions of one person have some impact on the other person; whatever one person does influences the other person. Sometimes interpersonal communication is pleasant, but sometimes it erupts into conflict—making each person’s communication especially significant for the other.

Th is communication that proceeds by question and answer. Through interviewing we learn
about others and what they know; we counsel or get counseling from others.  Many of the skills for interviewing are the same skills noted for interpersonal and small group communication.
Small Group Communication

4. Small group communication

 Small group communication is communication among members of groups of about five to ten people. Small group communication serves both relationship needs such as those for companionship, affection, or support and electing a new chairperson, or designing a new ad campaign. Through small group communication we interact with others, solve problems, develop new ideas, and share knowledge and experiences. We also may live a good part of our life in online chat rooms, where us may interact with people from different cultures living thousands of miles away, and in social networks chat (for example, MySpace, Facebook,and LinkedIn) where us learn about and communicate with others.

5. Organizational Communication
Organizational communication is communication that takes place within an organization among members of the organization. Conferencing with colleagues, working in teams, talking with a supervisor, or giving employees directions are just a few examples of organizational communication. The study of organizational communication offers guidelines for improving our own formal and informal communication in an organizational setting.

6. Public Speaking
Public speaking, also termed public communication  is a communication between a speaker and an audience. Audiences range in size from several people to hundreds, thousands, and even millions. Through public communication, others inform and persuade us  and we, in turn, inform and persuade others—to act, to buy, or to think in a particular way.Much as we can address large audiences face-to face

7.Computer-Mediated Communication
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is a general term that includes all forms of communication
between people that take place through some computer, electronic, or Internet connection, for example,
e-mail, texting, blogging, instant messaging, tweeting,or chatting on social network sites such as Facebook or MySpace or on our phone. All of these computer mediated forms, like their face-to-face counterparts,are used both socially and in the world of business.
Some CMC (such as e-mail or blogging) is asynchronous, meaning that it does not take place in
real time. We  may send our message today, but the receiver may not read it for a week and may take another week to respond. Consequently, much of the spontaneity created by face-to-face real-time communication is lost in asynchronous communication. Other forms of CMC (such as tweeting, chatting on social network-sites, interactive websites, and instant messaging) are often synchronous—they occur at the same time and are similar to phone communication except that CMCis largely text-based rather than voice-based.

8. Mass Communication

Mass communication is communication from one source to many receivers, who may be scattered throughout the world. Mass communication takes place via media outlets: newspapers, magazines, television, radio, film, and video. Through newsgroups, blogs, or social networks, for example, We can post a “speech” for anyone to read and then read their reactions to our message. And with the help of
the more traditional mass media of radio and television, We can address audiences in the hundreds of
millions as they sit alone or in small groups scattered
throughout the world.

The Benefits of Human Communication


The Benefits of Human Communication
 We will benefit in lots of ways. Our knowledge of human communication and our mastery of many of its skills will enable us to improve our presentation, relationship, leadership, thinking, and interaction skills.

1.Presentation skills enable us to present our self  as a confident, likable, approachable, and
credible person. Our ability to present our self in a positive light, through our verbal and nonverbal messages.Incidentally, it  is also largely through our skills of self-presentation

2.Relationship skills enable us to build friendships,, work with colleagues,and interact with family members. These are the interpersonal and relationship skills for initiating, maintaining, repairing, and sometimes dissolving relationships of all kinds

3.Leadership skills enable us to communicate information effectively in small groups or with large
audiences and our ability to influence others in these same situations are among our most important
leadership skills. In a workplace world that operates largely on group interaction, these
skills are increasingly essential if us are to be an effective organizational member and will help us
rise in the organization.
4.Critical and creative thinking skills. It  helps us approach new situations mindfully—with full conscious awareness. In case of  media literacy this ability help us to  to analyze the media and not let it influence us in unproductive ways.

5. Interaction skills help us to improve our communication in a wide range of forms, from the
simple small talk to the employment interview for the job of a lifetime. Interaction
skills will enable us to communicate with greater ease, comfort, and effectiveness whether we are
proposing a life-long relationship or apologizing for some transgression.

Monday, 23 June 2014


During the medieval period Indian classical music was broadly based on two traditions,
the Hindustani classical music prevalent in North India and the Carnatic music of South

HINDUSTANI CLASSICAL MUSIC Hindustani music lesson
Hindustani classical music may be traced back to the period of the Delhi Sultanate and to Amir Khusrau (AD 1253-1325) who encouraged the practice of musical performance
with particular instruments. He is believed to have invented the sitar and the tabla and is
said to have introduced new ragas.. Different styles of Hindustani music are Dhrupad, Dhamar, Thumri, Khayal and Tappa. It is said that Tansen’s music had the effect of magic. In fact his melodious songs are sung in every part of India even now with great interest. Some of Akbar’s courtiers patronised Musicians like Baiju Bawra, Surdas etc.
India also has a rich variety of musical instruments of different types . Amongst the stringed instruments the most famous are sitar, sarod, santoor and sarangi. Pakhawaj, tabla and Mridangam .  Likewise, flute, shehnai and nadaswaram are some of the chief wind instruments.

The compositions in Carnatic music may be attributed collectively to three composers
who lived between AD 1700 and 1850. They were Shyam Shastri, Thyagaraja and
Mutthuswami Dikshitar. Purandardasa was the  great composer of Carnatic music.
 The three great musicians experimented with new forms. Some notable musicians of this period are Maha Vaidyanath Ayyar (1844-93), Patnam Subrahmanya Ayyar (l854-1902) and Ramnad Srinivasa lyengar (l860-1919). 
Flute, veena, nadaswaram, mridangam, ghatam are some of the instruments to accompany Carnatic music.
the Carnatic alapana is similar to alap in Hindustani classical both lay stress on talam.

With the British rule came Western music. Indians adopted some of their instruments such as violin and clarinet to suit the demands of Indian music. Orchestration of music on stage is a new development. Use of cassettes replaced oral transmission of tunes and ragas..

Besides classical music India has a rich legacy of folk or popular music. This music represents the emotion of the masses. The simple songs are composed to mark every event in life. They may be festivals, advent of a new season, marriage or birth of a child.  Folk songs have their special meanings or messages. They often describe historical events and important rituals.Muslims sing Sojkhwani or mournful songs during Muharram and Christmas carols and choral music are sung in groups on the festive occasions.

Performing Arts: Music, Dance and Drama

India is a land of rich culture and heritage. Since the beginning of our civilization, music,
dance and drama have been an integral aspect of our culture. Initially, these art forms were used as medium of propagation for religion and social reforms in which music and dance were incorporated to gain popularity. From the Vedic era to the medieval period, the performing arts remained an important source of educating the masses. 

Performing arts may include primary forms, such as dance, music, opera, theatre and musical theatre, and secondary forms  Magic, mime, , recitation and public speaking. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers, including actors, comedians, dancers, magicians, musicians, and singers. Performers often adapt their appearance, such as with costumes and stage makeup, etc.
The performing arts refer to the forms of art where an artist uses his own face, body and presence. The major types of performing arts include music, opera, dance, drama, and spoken words.
Opera is a form of performing arts wherein musicians and singers perform a dramatic work that combines text, which is called the libretto and musical score. This form of art is a popular part of the Western classical music tradition. The art incorporates a lot of elements of spoken theatre, including scenery, acting and costumes. Sometimes it also includes dance. The performance in an Opera is usually done in an opera house. It is also accompanied by either a musical ensemble or an orchestra. Opera originated in Italy by the 16th century and it soon spread to the rest of Europe as it gains popularity. Various musicians in Europe developed a lot of ways in flourishing this form of art and made it even more popular.

Dance is a form of performing arts that refers to the art of moving the body rhythmically and usually in accordance to music. It is used as a form of social interaction and expression, or it is commonly presented in a performance or spiritual setting. It is also seen as a form of nonverbal communication, a type of communication where words are not used. Definitions of what dance is really all about usually varies in each culture, society or person.
It  involves the usage of the human body kinetics and flexibility and  also physics.

What is art? “Art is an expression of all characteristics of the human mind aesthetically”.
These characteristics, i.e. the varied human emotions, are known as ‘RAS’.
In Hindi, ‘ras’literally means a sugary juice. It signifies the ultimate satisfaction of ‘aanand’. Human emotionscan be categorized into nine sub-headings or ‘navras’. They are:
1. Hasya — laughter
2. Bhayanak — evil Shringar — aesthetics
3. Rudra — chivalrous
4. Karun — pathos
5. Vir — courage
6. Adbhut — astonishing
7. Vibhatsa — terrifying glory
8. Shaanti — peace
9. Shringaar — decorating one’s self
Art reflects human emotions and human beings spontaneously express their frame of mind through various art forms. Thus the intellectual mind merges with the artistic streak, giving birth to art. The expression is reflected in various styles like singing, dancing, drawing,Sketching, painting, sculpture are visual arts.

Singing, dancing, acting are attributes of performing arts. Music has been the most popular art form of India. They are Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ne The earliest tradition of Indian music may be traced to Sama Veda which contained the slokas that were put to music. 

The earliest text  Bharata’s Natyashashtra (compiled between second century BC and second century AD) is dealing exclusively the Performing arts.. A  variety of string and wind instruments were invented over the period of time. In ancient texts references have been made to flutes, drums, veena, and cymbals. The Gupta monarch Samudra Gupta was himself an accompolished musician. In some of his coins, he is shown playing on the Veena. Music was also associated with the worship of Gods and Goddess in the temples. In the twelfth century, Jayadeva of Orissa produced the most brilliant raga kavya, the Gita Govinda, each song of which was set in a raga and was composed on the theme of love of Radha and Krishna.

Tamil music has a number of terms and concepts parallel to what is found in Sanskrit texts. The Saivite Nayanars and Vaishnavite Alvars too set their psalms (poems) to music. Similarly in the medieval period the Sufi and Bhakti saints encouraged music. The Mughal rulers were great patrons of music. According to Lanepoole- “Babar himself was fond of music. He is supposed to have developed some very popular musical style forms like Qawalis, Khayal, etc. Humayun was said to have illustrated Indian texts on
music. Akbar composed songs and encouraged musicians. Swami Haridas and his disciples composed many songs in different tunes. Pundarika Vittal was a great scholar of music who wrote the famous Ragamala. Hindustani Music was also enriched by devotional songs sung by Mira Bai, Tulsidas and Surdas.