Saturday, 26 July 2014


Nonverbal communication is probably most easily explained in terms of the various channels through which
messages pass. The  most consider channels are : (1) body,(2) face, (3) eye, (4) space, (5) artifactual, (6) touch,(7) para language, (8) silence, (9) time, and (10) smell. Kinesics is  the study of nonverbal communication through face and body movements

1.Body Communication:

The body  reveals ones ethnicity  nationality. The  weight in proportion to  height  the length, color, and style of hair, the general attractiveness is also a part of body communication. In body communication there are  five major types of movements : emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators, and adaptors

Emblems. Emblems are body gestures that directly translate into words or phrases; for example, the OK

In the United States, to say “hello” you wave with your whole hand moving from side to side, but in
a large part of Europe that same signal means “no.” In Greece such a gesture would be considered
insulting. In Texas the raised fist with little finger and index finger held upright is a positive expression of support, because it represents the Texas longhorn steer. But in Italy it’s an insult that means “Your
spouse is having an affair with someone else.” In the United States and in much of Asia, hugs are
rarely exchanged among acquaintances; but among Latins and southern Europeans, hugging is a common greeting gesture, and failing to hug someone may communicate unfriendliness.

Illustrators. We using illustrates with  verbal messages they accompany. For example  we
 illustrate with our hands, or head and general body movements.  In communication the  illustrators increase our ability to remember the message.

Affect Displays. Affect displays are movements of the face ,the hands and general body that communicate emotional meaning. Often the "affect displays" are unconscious; we often smile or moving our hands and head with out our conscious awareness.

Regulators. Regulators are behaviors that monitor, control, coordinate, or maintain the communication of another individual. When we nod our head,we  tell the speaker to keep on speaking; when we lean forward and open our mouth, we tell the speaker that we would like to say something.

Adaptors. Adaptors are gestures that satisfy some personal need, such as moving our hair out of our eyes or rubbing our nose, or folding our arms in front of you to keep others a comfortable distance from us

2.Facial Communication

 Facial movements communicates various messages seem to communicate the degree of pleasantness, agreement, and sympathy felt.The facial movements may express at least eight emotions: happiness, surprise, fear,anger, sadness, disgust, contempt, and interest  Facial expressions of these emotions are generally called primary affect displays: They indicate relatively pure, single emotions. Other emotional states  are called affect blends. We communicate the blended feelings with different parts of your face. For example, we may experience both fear and disgust at the same time. Our eyes and eyelids may signal fear, and movements of your nose, cheek, and mouth area may signal disgust.

Facial Management techniques enable us to communicate our feelings and help us to achieve the effect we want—

  • To intensify: to exaggerate our astonishment at a surprise party to make your friends feel better.
  • To be intensify: to cover up our own joy about good news in the presence of a friend who didn’t receive any such news.
  • To neutralize: to cover up our sadness so as not to depress others.
  • To mask: to express happiness in order to cover up our disappointment 
  • To simulate: to express an emotion we did n’t feel.

3.Eye Communication

 The direction of the eye also communicates.  In U.S.culture the average length of gaze is 2.95 seconds.
The average length of mutual gaze  is 1.18 seconds.  When eye contact falls short of this amount, you may think the person is uninterested,shy, or preoccupied. .We are  expected to glance alternately at the other person’s face, then away, then again at the face, and so on. The rule for the public speaker is to scan the entire audience, not focusing for too long on or ignoring any one area of the audience.When you break these directional rules, you communicate different meanings—abnormally high or low interest,self-consciousness, nervousness over the interaction,and so on. 
Eye contact can serve a variety of functions. One such function is to seek feedback. A second function is to inform the other person that the channel of communication is open and that he or she should now speak. Eye movements may also signal the nature of a relationship, whether positive  or negative The average person, for example, maintains a high level of eye contact while listening and a lower level while speaking. .
Eye Avoidance
Eye avoidance, may help others maintain their privacy.For example, when you see some friends arguing in public. We turn our eyes away it mean to intrude; I respect your privacy,” Eye avoidance can also signal lack of interest—in a person, a conversation, or some visual stimulus. 

4. Space Communication

Space is an especially important factor in interpersonal communication. It can divided  as  (1) proxemic distances and (2) territoriality.

I. Proxemic Distances:

 proxemic distances, or spatial distances: the physical distances that define the types of relationships between people and the types of communication in which they are likely to engage .

Intimate Distance. Ranging from actual touching to 18 inches, in intimate distance the presence of
the other individual is unmistakable. Each person experiences the sound, smell, and feel of the other’s

Personal Distance. The protective “ personal space, ranging from 18 inches to 4 feet is personal distance. This imaginary bubble keeps you protected and untouched by others. At the outer limit of personal distance, you can touch another person only if both of you extend your arms. This is the distance at which you conduct most of your interpersonal interactions;for example, talking with friends and family.

Social Distance. This type of communication take place at  business
and  social gathering, it ranging from 4 to 12 feet.  In here we  lose the visual detail . This  distance  maintain  a  formal  appearance. In offices of high officials, the desks are positioned so the official is assured of at least this distance from clients.

Public Distance. This distance mainly for protects us  from others,the  public distance consider as  ranges from 12 to more than 25 feet. At this distance we can  take defensive action if threatened. On a public bus or train, for example, we might keep at least this distance from a drunken passenger. The specific distances that we maintain between ourselves also in case of  gender women sit and stand closer to each other than do men. Similarly aged , introverts people maintain greater distances than do extroverts.

2) Territoriality.

Territory Types. Three types of territory are often distinguished: primary, secondary, and public 
primary territory This territory means our own, or our influential area where our control vested such as our desk, room, house, backyard or our home office etc. Here we can find a belonging  , dominant.  Here  the communicator can  

Secondary territories,Here the communicator is belong but associated with this location.  For example, your
desk in a classroom may become a secondary territory if it is assigned to you or if you regularly occupy it and others treat it as yours. We feel a certain “ownership-like” attachment to the place, even though it’s really not yours in any legal sense. College Campus,Home Town Temple

Public territories are areas that are open to all people,such as a park, movie house, restaurant, or beach.
Territory is closely linked to status, power, and dominance. Generally, the size and location of a person’s
territory communicates a person’s status and power 

5. Touch Communication

The study of touch communication, technically referred to as haptics. Ttouch is consider as  the most primitive form of communication . Touch is probably the first sense to be used. Even in the womb the
child is stimulated by touch. Soon after birth the child is fondled, caressed, patted, and stroked. In turn, the child explores its world through touch. In a short time the child learns to communicate many different
meanings through touch.

The Meanings of Touch: Touch communicates a wide range of messages  Here are five major types of messages that will illustrate

Positive feelings. Touch communicates positive feelings; for example, support,appreciation, inclusion, interest,
 immediacy, affection,trust,  quality, and informality . Touch also stimulates self-disclosure 
Intention to play. Touch often communicates your intention to play, either affectionately or aggressively.
Control. Touch may control the behaviors, attitudes, or feelings of other people. To obtain compliance,
for example, you touch a person to communicate, “move over,” “hurry,” “stay here,” or“do it.” You might also touch a person to gain his or her attention, as if to say, “look at me” or “look
over here.”
Ritualistic. Ritualistic touching centers on greetings and departures; examples are shaking hands to say “hello” or “good-bye,” hugging, kissing, or putting your arm around another’s shoulder when greeting or saying  farewell.

Task-related. Task-related touching is associated with the performance of some function, as when you remove a speck of dust from another person’s coat, help someone out of a car, or check someone’s
forehead for fever.

Touch Avoidance

Every one have a need and desire to touch and be touched. Touch is intimate forms of communication. But   or in certain circumstances we have a tendency to avoid touch from certain people.   
Touch avoidance is positively related to communication apprehension. If you have a strong fear of oral communication, then you probably also have strong touch avoidance tendencies.
 Touch avoidance is also high in those who self-disclose less.  People who are reluctant to get close to another person by self-disclosing also seem reluctant to get close by touching.
Touch also varies with our relationship stage. In the early stages of a relationship,our touch little; in intermediate stages (involvement an intimacy), we touch a great deal; and at stable or
deteriorating stages, you again touch little 

Thursday, 24 July 2014


Conversation, whether face-to-face or online, takes  place in five steps: opening, feed forward, business,
feedback, and closing

The first step in conversation is the opening, which usually involves some kind of greeting: “Hi.” “How
are you?”

In the second step of conversation, you usually give some kind of feed forward in which you may seek to
accomplish a variety of functions. “Haven’t we met before?” or “Nice day, isn’t it?” In e-mail you give
feedforward simply by sending the message, which tells the other person that you want to communicate.

The third step is the business, or the substance and focus, of the conversation. We converse to fulfill
one or several of the general purposes of interpersonal communication: to learn,relate, influence, play, or help.

The fourth step of conversation, feedback, In feedback we reflect back on the conversation.

The  last step of the conversation process,the opposite of the first step, is the closing, the goodbye .  Like the opening, the closing may be verbal or nonverbal but usually is a combination of both.The closing usually also signals some degree of supportiveness—for example, you express your pleasure
in interacting “Well, it was good talking with you”.

Content taken from Joseph A DeVito 's Human Communication Basic course book

Wednesday, 23 July 2014


having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR 
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizen: 
JUSTICE-social economic and political; 
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; 
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; 
And promote among them all 
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the 
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949do 

The Preamble is like an introduction or preface of Constitution. The ‘Preamble’ provides the guide lines of the Constitution. The Preamble, in brief, explains the objectives of the Constitution in two ways: 
one, about the structure of the governance and 
the other, about the ideals to be achieved in independent India. 
The Preamble is considered to be the key of the Constitution.

The objectives, which are laid down in the Preamble, are:
i) Description of Indian State as Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic.
ii) Provision to all the citizens of India i.e.,
  •  Justice social, economic and political
  • Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship
  • Equality of status and opportunity
  • Fraternity assuring dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the
  • nation.

Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly. This Assembly was an
indirectly elected body. It is a rule of book of a nation. The document containing laws and rules which determine and describe the form of the government, the relationship between the citizens and the government. A constitution is the basic fundamental law of a State. It describes
the rights and duties of the citizens. It is,  considered to be the basis for the
governance of the country both in terms of goals and objectives as also their structures
and functions.The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble.

Functions of the Constitution 

 The Constitution is a political structure.  They have several functions.

a) Expression of Ideology:
it reflects the ideology and philosophy of a nation state.

b) Expression of Basic Law:
Constitutions present basic laws which could be modified or replaced through a process called extra ordinary procedure of amendment.

c) Organizational frame work:
It provides organizational framework for the governments. It defines the functions legislature, executive and judiciary, their inter-relationship, restrictions on their authority etc.

d) Levels of Government:
Constitution generally explains the levels of different organs of  the Government. .

e) Amendment provision:
There must be sufficient provisions for amendment of the Constitution. It should contain a set of directions for its own modifications.

Salient Features of the Constitution of India

The following are the salient features of the Constitution of India.

Longest written constitution
Indian Constitution can be called the largest written constitution in the world because of its contents. In its original form, it consisted of 395 articles, 22 parts ans 8 schedules on 26th Jan 1950. At present it contains 448 articles,22 parts and 12 schedules.  One major factors for the long size of the constitution was that the framers of the constitution borrowed provisions form several sources and several other constitutions of the world.
 Partly Rigid and Partly Flexible
The Constitution of India is neither purely rigid nor purely flexible.  Some parts of the Constitution can be amended by the ordinary law-making process by Parliament. Certain provisions can be amended, only when a Bill for that purpose is passed in each house of Parliament by a majority of the total membership of that house. There have been 98 amendments to the Constitution of India since it was first enacted in 1950 
 A Democratic Republic
India is a democratic republic. It means that sovereignty rests with the people of India. They govern themselves through their representatives elected on the basis of universal adult franchise. The President of India, the highest official of the state is elected for a fixed term. Although, India is a sovereign republic, yet it continues to be a member of the Commonwealth of Nations with the British Monarch as its head. Her membership of the Commonwealth does not compromise her position as a sovereign republic. The commonwealth is an association of free and independent nations. The British Monarch is only a symbolic head of that association.
Secular State
A secular state is neither religious nor irreligious, or anti-religious. Rather it is quite neutral in matters of religion.  On the contrary, right to freedom of religion is ensured in the Constitution and people belonging to any religious group have the right to profess, practice or propagate any religion they like.
 An Independent Judiciary
The judiciary occupies an important place in our Constitution and it is also made independent of the legislature and the executive. The Supreme Court of India stands at the apex of single integrated judicial system. It acts as protector of fundamental rights of Indian citizens and guardian of the Constitution
 Single Citizenship
The Constitution of India recognises only single citizenship. In the United States, there is provision of dual citizenship. In India, we are citizens of India only, not of the respective states to which we belong. This provision would help in promoting unity and integrity of the nation.