Friday, 25 February 2011

General Knowlege

1. The Nobel Peace Prize winner and pro-democracy leader of Burma who has been released by Myanmar's military government recently? Aung San Suu Kyi.
This 65-year-old Nobel Peace Prize laureate, whose latest period of detention spanned 7 1/2 years, has come to symbolise the struggle for democracy in the Southeast Asian nation ruled by the military since 1962.

2. Who won the first gold of the 16th Asian Games by winning the men’s Changquan title in wushu? Yuan Xiaochao (China).

3. Information Technology and Communications Minister of India who resigned over his alleged involvement in the 2G spectrum allocation scam? A Raja
The 2G spectrum allocations caused an alleged loss of Rs1.76 lakh crore to the Government, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) has stated in a damning report.

4. Which Asian country along with 40 other countries has been elected to the board of the new UN agency to promote equality for women? India.
The board to have representatives from 10 African countries, 10 Asian countries, four Eastern European countries, six Latin American and Caribbean countries and five countries from Western Europe. Asian Countries elected to the board of U.N.Women are Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Republic of Korea and Timor
The agency will be headed by Chile's former president Michelle Bachelet and is expected to be fully operational in January 2011.

5. Indian environmentalist who has been named as one of the seven most powerful feminists in the world, according to a compilation in Forbes magazine? Vandana Shiva

6. Renowned Indian-origin academician who has been named alongside US Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke and Nobel laureate Paul Krugman among the seven most powerful economists in the world, according to a compilation in Forbes magazine? Raghuram Rajan.

7. Who was given the additional charge of the telecom ministry held by A Raja, who recently resigned facing allegations of scam in 2G spectrum allocation? Kapil Sibal.
He was also given the additional charge of Ministries of Science and Technology and Earth Sciences, which fell vacant after incumbent Prithviraj Chavan was made Chief Minister of Maharashtra. V Narayansamy, Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs, was given additional charge of Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT), which also fell vacant after Chavan's departure.

8. Which country decided to pay millions of pounds in compensation to former Guantanamo Bay detainees following weeks of negotiations between lawyers for the government and the former prisoners? Britain.

9. Which company recently decided to shut down its match box manufacturing unit in Chennai (i.e. Chennai plant of Wimco) and has given voluntary retirement to all its employees? ITC. The matchbox business, undertaken by the Chennai unit, would be outsourced to the small-scale sector as the production of matchboxes had become unviable due to the excise-duty disadvantage.

10. Which magazine has won the International Press Institute (IPI) India Award for Excellence in Journalism, 2010 for its outstanding journalistic work done during 2009?  TEHELKA magazine.

11. Two-day NATO summit, a meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of NATO held in? Lisbon, Portugal.
The summit also known as the 2010 Lisbon summit held on 19 and 20 November 2010.NATO's new strategic concept, NATO operations in Afghanistan and relations with Russia and other major issues discussed in that summit.

12. Name of a Jupiter-like extra solar planet orbiting the star HIP 13044, about 2,000 light years away from the Earth located on the outskirts of our Milky Way galaxy discovered recently by Astronomers? HIP 13044b. Its discovery was announced on November 18, 2010. The study that led to the discovery of the planet was performed by a team from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy.

13. Who has been ranked by the Time magazine as the 9th most powerful woman of the past century, a list that also includes Mother Teresa? Indira Gandhi.
Besides Gandhi, only Mother Teresa, who is ranked 22nd, from India included in the list. The list of '25 Most Powerful Women of the Past Century' is topped by Jane Addams, an outspoken advocate for women's suffrage, who was the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

14. Name of a long-haired Chihuahua who becomes the smallest police dog in world?(Momo, a seven-year-old Chihuahua, poses during a police dog examination held at Koriyama, western Japan)"Momo" The seven-year-old long-haired Chihuahua qualified as a search-and-rescue dog employed by police in Nara prefecture, western Japan. Most search and rescue dogs are German Shepherds. Police are hoping that Momo can be used for search and rescue operations for disasters like earthquakes. Momo is Japanese for “Peach.”Chihuahua is the smallest breed of dog and is named after the state of Chihuahua in Mexico.

15. National Award winning cinematographer from Kerala who recently passed away in Chennai on Monday due to Alzheimer's.  Mankada Ravi Varma.
He served as cinematographer for noted Directors like Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Aravindan and PN Menon. He won two National Awards for cinematography, one for Adoor Gopalakrishnan's Swayamvaram in 1972. In 2000, he won it for his documentary, Kalamandalam Gopi. He won seven Kerala State Film Awards in various categories. In 1984, he directed his first film, Nokkukuthi, which won him another National Award and a State award. It was based on a poem by noted Malayalam poet, M Govindan. He also directed Kunjikoonan in 1989.

16. Which country launched a massive spy satellite on 21-11-2010 for the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)? U.S.A.
The satellite was launched through Delta 4 carrier rocket -on behalf of "NRO", the U.S. administration which manages spy satellites- from UAL (United Launch Alliance, a Boeing-Lockheed Martin joint-venture), and it departed from the USAF's installation in Cape Canaveral (Florida).

17 Who was elected as President of the Karnataka State Cricket Association? Anil Kumble.
Kumble's men won 23 out of the 24 posts and he defeated current president Srikantadatta Narasimharaja Wadiyar by 43 votes.
Former fast bowler Jawagal Srinath elected as Secretary. Former India seamer Venkatesh Prasad, who was elected vice president along with Roger Binny.

18. Who has been crowned the 2010 Male World Athlete of the Year at the World Athletics Gala in Monte Carlo? David Rudisha. (Kenya).  He is a Kenyan middle distance runner and world record holder in the 800 metres with a time of 1:41.01. Rudisha holds four of the ten fastest times for this event. In November 2010, at the age of 21, he became the youngest ever athlete to win the IAAF World Athlete of the Year award. He also won the Kenyan Sportsman of the Year award.

19. Who has been crowned the 2010 Female World Athlete of the Year at the World Athletics Gala in Monte Carlo? Blanka Vlasic (Croatia).She is the current Croatian record holder in high jump, and also the current World Champion both indoors and outdoors. Her personal best jump of 2.08 m was set on 31 August 2009 and is the second highest height cleared in the history of the event.

20. A woman, who has helped almost 12000 women and girls find their way out from sex slavery, has been chosen as the CNN Hero of the Year 2010. Name of that woman?
Anuradha Koirala. She and her group (Maiti Nepal) have helped more than 12,000 victims of Nepal’s sex trafficking business. She is the Founder and Executive Director of Maiti Nepal which has provided more than a shelter for these girls and young women.

21. More than 378 people were killed in a stampede in a country in Southeast Asia during the final day of the annual Water Festival held in its capital city on November 2010. Which is that country? Cambodia.

22. Chief Minister of Andra Pradesh who resigned on November 24, 2010 citing his inability to withstand the work-pressure because of his age? K. Rosaiah.
The 78-year-old leader had taken over as the chief minister on Sep 3 last year following the death of Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy in a helicopter crash.

23. Who becomes the 16th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh after Rosaiah resigns citing personal reasons? Kiran Kumar Reddy.

24. India recently decided to set up two test ranges for radar-based electronic warfare (EW) systems. The two test ranges will come up at?Chitradurga in Karnataka and Tandur in Andhra Pradesh.

25. The chief executive officer of LIC Housing Finance who has been arrested by CBI in connection with an alleged multi-crore housing finance racket? Ramachandran Nair.

World affair

1.    Congress President Sonia Gandhi ranks 9th on the Forbes 2010 list of the ''World''s Most Powerful People. Manmohan Singh comes in at number 18. India''s business tycoons Reliance Industries Chairman Mukesh Ambani, Tata Sons Chairman Ratan Tata and head of ArcelorMittal, Lakshmi Mittal also make the list.
2.    The Qatar-based and state-owned broadcast network which is all set to launch its English news channel in India over the next three or four weeks? Al Jazeera.
3.     Who won the Player of the series award in the three Test Cricket series between India and New Zealand held in India on November 2010? Harbhajan Singh (India).
4.     Which country has decided to open its Consulate at Bali to strengthen its commercial ties with Indonesia? India.
5.    Name of the world's most active and dangerous volcano which erupted with renewed ferocity in Indonesia on 05-11-2010 killing more than 100 peoples? Mount Merapi.
Mount Merapi is an active stratovolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. The name Merapi could be loosely translated as 'Mountain of Fire'.
6.    Which country has closed its airspace for Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), the country's national flag carrier, for failing to get the required renewal of permission in time? Russia. Pakistan also imposed ban on Russian aircraft flying from Pakistani airports on November 30,2010 .The decision was taken following the crash of the ill-fated Russian cargo plane close to Karachi Airport just minutes after take-off that left 12 people dead including eight Russians on board.
7.    Name of the woman who believed to be the world’s oldest person died at the age of 114 in the French Caribbean island of St. Barts? Eugenie Blanchard.
She at the age of 114 years, 261 days was the oldest living person at the time of her death. She became the recognised titleholder upon the death of Japanese super centenarian Kama Chinen on 2 May 2010.
8.    Employees of which broadcaster conducted two-day strike over pension changes that has caused widespread disruption to the broadcaster's programmes?         BBC. (British Broadcasting Corporation).
9.     Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) successfully flight tested the indigenously designed and developed aircraft jet engine during the Flying Test Bed (FTB) Trials at Gromov Flight Research Institute (GFRI), Moscow, Russia on November 4,2010. Name of that Engine? GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri. (Kaveri Engine).An indigenous Indian design, the Kaveri was intended to power production models of the HAL Tejas fighter, originally called the "Light Combat Aircraft" (LCA), but it was officially de-linked from HAL Tejas program in September, 2008. Kaveri Engine is an afterburning turbofan being developed by the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), a lab under the DRDO in Bangalore, India.
N.B: Turbofan is a type of aircraft jet engine based around a gas turbine engine.
10. Which country has imposed sanctions on Pakistan-based terror groups Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) on November 4, 2010? U.S.A.
11. Which country has been ranked at 119th position on the Human Development Index? India.
The Human Development Index which measures a country’s progress in development of its economy, people and other aspects. Among the 169 countries, Norway, Australia and New Zealand were at the top position. Meanwhile, Niger, Democratic Republic of Congo and Zimbabwe were at the bottom of the list.
12. Which country has recently signed $10 billion (nearly Rs.44, 000 crore) worth deals with U.S.A for creating more than 50,000 jobs back in the U.S? India.
13. Former Chief Minister of West Bengal who died recently at his south Kolkata residence after a prolonged illness? Siddhartha Shankar Ray.
He was Education Minister of Government of India during 1967-1972. He was also the ambassador of India to the United States of America. He served as the Chief Minister of West Bengal from 1972 to 1977.
14. Name of the Indian who has been elected as member of Advisory Committee on Budgetary and Administrative Questions (ACABQ) - an affiliated body of U.N. General Assembly? Ms.Namgya C Khampa. (Representing India from the Asian region)
15. ACABQ, the 16-member advisory body, plays a crucial role in keeping the UN's financial house in order, including supervision of its overall budget of 22 billion dollar. Besides India, Japan and China were also elected from the Asian region's three open seats. Pakistan contested from the Asian region but could not make it.

Name of the Indian who has been elected as member Independent Audit Advisory Committee (IAAC) - an affiliated body of U.N. General Assembly?   Vinod Rai (Represents India from the Asian group).IAAC recommended by acclamation the three-year appointment of Mr. Rai (from the Asian group); Vadim Vadimovich Dubinkin of Russia (from the Eastern Europe group); Adrian Patrick Strachan of Jamaica (from the Latin America-Caribbean group).Their terms of office begin on January 1, 2011.IAAC of the United Nations is established as a subsidiary body of the General Assembly to serve in an expert advisory capacity and to assist the General Assembly in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities.
16.  In which country world's tallest statue of Jesus unveiled on November 21, 2010? Poland. The statue of Jesus stands at 36 metres (118 feet) is located in Swiebodzin, western Poland.
17. Wicket Keeper of Pakistan Cricket Team who has retired from international cricket and sought political asylum in Britain amid alleged threats from match-fixers? Zulqarnain Haider. Haider left the Pakistan team in Dubai and flew to London after claiming he had been offered money to lose matches against South Africa.
18.  British Royal family has created a profile on a social networking site on Nov 8, 2010. Which is that social networking site? Face book
19. Chief Minister of Maharashtra who resigned on November 9,2010from his post following Adarsh Cooperative Housing Society scam? Ashok Chavan.
20. Secretary of the Congress Parliamentary Party (CPP) who resigned in the wake of allegations of corruption in Commonwealth Games? Suresh Kalmadi.
21. Who became the first enlisted Sikh soldier to complete basic training in US Army since 1984 while maintaining his turban and unshorn hair?  Simran Preet Singh Lamba.
22. Who has been named the brand ambassador for the 2011 cricket World Cup that would be co-hosted by India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh? Sachin Tendulkar.
23. The trial of eight police officers charged with the murder of prominent human rights activist in the Democratic Republic of Congo has started recently. Name of that human rights activist who was killed in June, 2010? Floribert Chebeya.He was also the head of the charity “Voice of the Voiceless”
24.  Who won the Player of the series award in the Two Test Cricket matches between South Africa and Pakistan held in U.A.E in November 2010?Jacques Kallis (South Africa).
                  Who has become the first Christian woman in Pakistan to be sentenced to death for  blasphemy? Asia Bibi.
Asia, who worked with many other local Muslim women on the farm of Muslim landowner, was pressured to renounce Christianity and accept Islam. Asia allegedly responded by telling the Muslim women that Christ died on the cross for our sins. She added that Jesus is alive and “Our Christ is the true prophet of God. This provoked the Muslim women in the farm. Later some coworkers complained to a cleric that Bibi made derogatory comments about Muhammad. A mob came to her house, beating her and members of her family before she got rescued by the police. The police were under pressure from this Muslim mob, including clerics. She spent more than a year in jail. In November 2010 Naveed Iqbal, judge at the at court of Sheikhupura, Punjab, "totally ruled out" that there was any false implication, saw "no mitigating circumstances", and sentenced her to death by hanging. Additionally, a fine of an equivalent of $1,100 was imposed.
Blasphemy is irreverence toward holy personages, religious artifacts, customs, and beliefs.

Current Affair- World news

1.   Literary critic and Malayalam writer, who has won the Kerala State’s highest literary    honour,’Ezhuthachan award-2010’? Dr M Leelavathi.

2. Who has been appointed as the General Secretary (GS) of the All India Football Federation (AIFF) with effect from November 1, 2010? Kushal Das.

3. Who are the joint winners of 25th Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration Award? Oscar Award winning music composer A R Rahman and the Ramkrishna Mission Ashram at Narainpur in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh received the Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration-2010. The award carries a citation and a cash prize of Rs 500,000.

4. For the first time in nearly 20 years a commercial airliner from a European Country has flown into Iraqi capital Baghdad. Which is that country?France.
A plane operated by France's Aigle Azur landed in Baghdad on October 31, 2010 becoming the first flight from a European airline to arrive in the city since a 1990 international embargo on Iraq.

5. The UN biodiversity meeting which has agreed a 10-year plan aimed at preserving nature held in?   Nagoya,  Japan.

6. First woman president of Brazil, the biggest nation in South America?   Dilma Rousseff.
She won the presidential elections defeating conservative candidate Jose Serra. She was the candidate of Worker’s Party (PT).

7. Who becomes the most hated French president in more than 50 years according to a recent French poll?   Nicolas Sarkozy.

8. Classical flute exponent who will be conferred the Chevalier dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, the highest civilian award in France, by the French government for his contribution to music?  Hariprasad Chaurasia

9. Prime Minister of Somalia?  Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed.

10. China on November 1, 2010 launched its sixth satellite that will become part of its satellite navigation and positioning network Name of that satellite?
The Beidou or Compass navigation satellite.It launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center in Sichuan Province, southwest China. The Beidou will join China's other five satellites already in orbit to form a network or system that will eventually consist of 35 orbiters.

11. Which team created a unique record in the match against Rajasthan by getting all out for a meager 21 runs, the lowest total by any team in the Ranji Trophy matches?
Hyderabad.Debutant Deepak Chahar (Rajasthan's 18-year-old medium-pacer) made an amazing debut by claiming 8 wickets, his bowling reads 7.3-2-10-8 in this match. The previous Ranji record was set in the first season (1934-35), when Southern Punjab were bowled out for 22 chasing 114 against Northern India in Amritsar.

12. Who has won the World Professional Billiards title-2010 for the ninth time in his career? Mike Russell. He beat India’s Dhruv Sitwala in the final to claim the £6,000 winner’s cheque and the trophy.

13. Deputy Speaker of the House of Lords who resigned recently following his suspension from the House over his expenses claims?  Swraj Paul.
House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

14. Which countries signed defense agreements on November 2, 2010 that promised cooperation including the creation of a joint expeditionary force, shared use of aircraft carriers and combined efforts to improve the safety and effectiveness of their nuclear weapons?  France and Britain.

15. The South Africa fast bowler who has announced his retirement from international cricket on November 2, 2010?  Makhaya Ntini.
He was the first ethnically black player to play for the South African team. He is the third South African to take 300 Test wickets after Shaun Pollock and Allan Donald. On the 17 December 2009 he played his 100th Test, becoming the only black South African cricketer to reach that mark. He took 390 wickets in Tests and 266 wickets in ODIs.

16. Who has been posted as DGP of Fire and Rescue Services of Kerala? Siby Mathews.

17. Who has bagged The Hindu Best Fiction Award 2010 which was instituted by The Hindu Literary Review as a prelude to celebrating its 20th year in 2011? Manu Joseph.
His novel “Serious Men” bagged the award which carries a cash prize of Rs.5 lakh and a plaque. “The Hindu” is the name of the newspaper which has established the prize.

18. Former Russian prime minister died recently who served as prime minister in the 1990s as the country emerged from communism and developed as a market economy?
Viktor Chernomyrdin.

19. Who won the Player of the Series Award in the 3 ODI Cricket series between Australia and Sri Lanka held in Australia in November 2010? Lasith Malinga. (Sri Lanka).

20. Who won the Player of the Series Award in the 5match ODI Cricket series between South Africa and Pakistan held in Abu Dhabi? Hashim Amla. (South Africa)

21. Indian-American who has created the history on November 3, 2010 by becoming first woman to won the South Carolina Governor seat in United States midterm polls?
 Nikki Haley.

22. Who has been appointed the interim president of the Hockey India?                 Mariamma Koshy. She is the head of Hockey Kerala.

23. The Ace Shooter who was India's flag-bearer at the opening ceremony of the 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou, China?   Gagan Narang.
He became the fifth shooter to carry the national flag at the opening ceremony of a mega event like the Asian Games.

24. National Centre for Molecular Materials (NCMM), the first of its kind Institute in the country will be established at? Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.

25. Who has been named the most powerful person in the world by Forbes, ahead of US President Barack Obama who is ranked second among 68 people?   Hu Jintao, Chinese President.

Monday, 7 February 2011

Script Writing- Kinds of Script-Elements

 A 'script.' is a document in a particular format, notation, and length which demand a collaborative process. A script is a document that outlines every aural, visual, behavioral, and lingual element required to tell a story.
A film is a VISUAL medium.  By script tell our audience our story,  and  what we  SHOW them and  write what they will SEE and what they will HEAR.  It has provide a specific format or layout, margins, notation, and other conventions.
Learning how to write a screenplay involves many facets. There are number of screenwriting software provide in the market also in online. Advances in screenwriting software save the hours we would previously have spent learning how to write a screenplay in professional Hollywood format can now be allocated to polishing our plot, sharpening our dialogue, or learning screenplay structure.
Final Draft screenwriting software, Movie Magic Screenwriter, Dramatica Pro, Outline 4D and along with a bunch of other really useful software, DVDs and books.

Good Story line

The movies we loved most featured characters that sweep us up, who captivated our emotions, and got we involved. The audience viewing a movie not only wants to be interested in they want to be PASSIONATE about them, whether they like them or not. It create a hook.  Successful stories have a fresh face but are identifiable. It  makes an  idea unique, also it can be   describe to others quickly by a fast-paced thriller, romantic comedy, action adventure.

Script Styles

Below is a listing of the most common script formats in use today. Feature Film/Television Movie of the Week which are very similar but the others are distinctly different.
The others:

·        Stage Plays and Musicals
·        Sitcoms
·        Soap Operas
·        Multimedia

 Kinds of Script

1. Spec Script

It is a sample script, usually not intended for production, but to showcase the screen writing skills of the author, in hopes of attracting the attention of an agent or producer. Often a spec script which fails to sell goes on to be a sample script.

  • for easier reading, often avoiding camera angles, editing directions, and technical intrusions
  • by writers who hope to have a script optioned and eventually purchased by producers or studios;
  • by writer/directors who want to direct a film themselves
  • by amateur writers hoping to convince a  literary agent to represent them or a producer to hire them.
2.Shooting Scripts
Once a script is purchased, it often goes through a series of rewrites before it is put into production. Once that happens, the script becomes a 'Shooting Script' or Production Script. All the scenes and shots of a shooting script are numbered and each scene and shot are broken down into all the component pieces required to film it. The production assistants and director can then arrange the order in which the scenes will be shot for the most efficient use of stage, cast, and location resources.
A shooting script is the version of a screenplay used during the production of a  motion picture.  Shooting scripts are distinct from spec scripts in that they make use of scene numbers (along with certain other formatting conventions), and they follow a well defined set of procedures specifying how script revisions should be implemented and circulated

Spec Screenplay Page Properties

The Rules:Screenplays are traditionally written on 8 1/2" x 11" white 3-hole punched paper. A page number appears in the upper right hand corner in the header. No page number is printed on the first page. The type style used is the Courier 12 font. The top and bottom margins are between .5" and 1". The left margin is between 1.2" and 1.6". The right margin is between .5" and 1".
The extra inch of white space on the left of a script page allows for binding with brads, yet still imparts a feeling of vertical balance of the text on the page.The Courier 12 font is used for timing purposes. One script page in Courier 12 roughly averages 1 minute of onscreen film time.
Writing Tip: Script writing software is pre-programmed with all these rules right out of the box.

Script Length: The average feature screenplay, traditionally, is between 95 and 125 pages long. In Hollywood these days scripts generally don't run longer than 114 pages. Comedy scripts are typically shorter, dramas longer. There are, naturally, variations. we could be writing an action-packed film where our description takes only 10 seconds to read, but will take 45 seconds of film time. Here's an example:

Script Elements

These are the unique margin, case, and position attributes that give feature film script text the format and consistency expected by all participants. Once we are accustomed to them we'll be able to tell our story the way an industry reader is accustomed to seeing it. The elements for a script are:
Scene Heading,   Action,  Character Name,  Dialogue, Parenthetical, Extensions, Transition, Shot.

Scene Heading

Scene Heading are aligned flush left (which we learned is about 1.5" from the edge of the paper) and are rarely long enough to reach the page margin.
The Scene Heading is written in ALL CAPS. Use a period after the INT. or EXT., a hyphen between the other elements of the Slugline.
The Scene Heading, sometimes called Slugline, tells the reader of the script where the scene takes place. Are we indoors (INT) or outdoors (EXT)
 Next name the location: BEDROOM, LIVING ROOM, at the BASEBALL FIELD, inside a CAR? And lastly it might include the time of day - NIGHT, DAY, DUSK, DAWN... information to "set the scene" in the reader's mind.
The Slugline can also include production information like CONTINUOUS ACTION, or ESTABLISHING SHOT or STOCK SHOT. Here are examples of Scene Headings:
Software Tip: Script writing software will automatically file each new Scene Heading we use. This avoid the need to retype the same text again and again, and it also helps us keep our script consistent.
 There is nothing more distracting to the reader than to see one Scene Heading read:
and two pages later:
Keeping Scene Headings consistent allows our reader to recognize locations and places and not have to figure out if this is a new set (location). Here is a sample in Scene Heading sample in script form:
We have 'established' that we're in a marina at dawn.


The Rules: DIALOGUE margin is indented 2.5" from the left margin. A line of dialogue can be from 30 spaces to 35 spaces long, so the right margin is a bit more flexible, usually 2.0" to 2.5".
DIALOGUE rules apply when anyone on screen speaks and also during a conversation between characters. When a character talks out loud to himself... even be when a character is off-screen and only a voice is heard.
Writing Tip: Great dialogue is a window into the soul of our character. It sounds real and  to be conversational. The audience feels like a hearing natural interplay between characters. Great dialogue may use common language but express great passion, and even become a catch phrase in popular culture.
 It's a good idea to read our dialogue aloud to see how it really sounds. If we have seen a difficult time reading a line, it may not be good dialogue.
Software Tip: Script writing software now has the capacity to read our dialogue back to us via our computer's sound system.  We assign a gender to our character name, even different inflections, and we can have a staged reading of our script right there in our living room.


Parentheticals are left indented at 3.0" and the right margin is 3.5" although that is a bit flexible. As seen in our examples, a Parenthetical remark is NOT centered under the character name.

A Parenthetical remark can be an attitude, verbal direction or action direction for the actor who is speaking the part. Parentheticals should be short, to the point, descriptive, and only used when absolutely necessary.
These days, Parentheticals are generally disfavored, because they give direction to an actor that may not be appropriate once on the set. The slang term for them is "wrylies" as in:
                        Good mornin', Bluebird.
                        What? What time is it?
Parentheticals are also used in some scripts as the continuing notation. If a character is speaking followed by an action line and then the same character continues speaking, this notation can be used, but the New Spec Script frowns on all such superfluously inserted notations.
                                (getting out of bed)
                        After six. You're gonna be late
                        again and I don't want to hear
Frankie pulls all the covers off of Julie. She sits up in bed, pulls on a long
T-shirt, and shuffles to the bathroom.
                        You're welcome.
Software Tip: Script writing programs may give us the option of placing the (continuing) as a parenthetical remark or on the same line as the Character name, looking much like an Extension.
Most Transitions are already programmed into script writing programs, capitalized and lined up for those rare occasions when we can't resist to  use one.


We must begin with this remark: nowadays, in Spec Scripts, transitions are frowned upon, a waste of a couple of lines we could better use for brilliant dialogue, and are only used when absolutely necessary.
The Rules: When we use a Transition, the left margin is at 6.5" and a right margin of 1.0". Transitions are formatted in all caps and almost always follow an Action and precede Scene Headings.
Transitions may be familiar with are:
  • CUT TO:
  • FADE TO:
  • FADE OUT (never at the end of the script)
Writing Tip: The only time to use a Transition in a spec script is if it's integral to telling the story. The point is, unless we become quite skilled in screenwriting don't use these things unless absolutely necessary, because the director of the film will probably think of something different. 

How to write a Script and needed strategies to succeed

Here are a few easy steps to get we started as a script writer.
1. Get our story straight. Come up with lots of ideas of what is want to happen in the play or movie and create the premise and purpose of that story, What are the circumstances and what are the goals of the stories and main characters involved?
2. Our characters will drive the action on the stage or screen, so we make them interesting and innovative. Find our own method and work with it.
3. Create an outline or treatment. Before we begin actually writing dialogue and script, create a basic roadmap of what will happen in our story.
4. Maintain our own style. Remember, scripts are all about action and dialogue. Make sure our characters speak realistically, and try not to mix styles of speech and vocabulary.
 5. Ensure that different characters have their own 'voice' based on their background, which will affect their word choices and dialect. This will stop our characters blending into one another.
6. Set the scene. To include important details such as time of day,  setting, and actions of the characters in the scene. These are nearly as important as the dialogue that occurs.
7. Format our writing. Skip lines between one character speaking and a different one speaking, especially if we're handwriting it.
8. Edit our self. Continually revise our writing, and, if possible, show the script to a friend or adviser who has writing experience and can critique and improve the script as needed.

Alternative Method

1. Have a marketable storyline.
2. Pace ourself.
3. Have fun!
4. Edit.
5. Revise.
6. Revise again.
7. Revise and test it on trustworthy people.
8 . Copyright it.
9. Register with the Writer's Guild because if we don't, our work will be considered unsolicited and they won't even bother reading it.
10. Do our homework.
11. Get an agent, a manager, or an entertainment lawyer before you send it.
12. If we'd rather skip the middle men, make sure our work is up to par with industry standards.
13. Never give up.
14. Respect the craft.
15. Tell great stories, and have fun with it and  . Play the script


Write INT when the scene is inside and EXT when it's outside.
Characters names are always written in capital letters. When recognizing the speaker, the name should be either above or on the left side of the lines.
Stage direction/other direction is written in Italics. Note that this is only for stage plays not in  screen plays .
Words that should be stressed or said more clearly are written in bold or underlined.
Our script should have a cover page. It should clearly show the title of the play, the author of the play, and the approximate length of the play..
Before pitching our screenplay, we'll want to get electronic proof-of-creation. We can do this online.
We also may want to invest in some sort of script writing program, such as Final Draft. 
We may want to attend a scriptwriting class, which will give us helpful hints on the nuances of writing a full script, especially things such as plot development, character development, and dialogue.
When we are ready, we may want to use one of the film industry's online scouting services, to get our story and screenplay reviewed by industry executives in a protected platform of exposure
If we would like to have our script performed on stage or screen, we will need to contact an agent who can help us send it to the necessary people (producers and directors). It is often a long and demanding process to get a script accepted, so be patient.
Try it with a friend so we can get a new perspective on the story. They might have some ideas too.
Make sure and make a plot line before we begin to write your script.
All scripts should contain conflict, progression and status changes, otherwise it will be uninteresting to read or watch.
Make sure the story makes sense and flows with the rest of our film.

Things we’ll Need

  • Scriptwriting programs such as Final Draft, or Microsoft word or a similar text editor, or a pencil or pen and paper
  • Decent amount of knowledge on the subject you're writing about
  • Imagination
  • Creativity

National Film Award for Best Screenplay

The National Film Award (Silver Lotus Award) for Best Screenplay winners:
P. F. Mathews and Harikrishna (Best Original Screenplay)
Gopal Krishan Pai and Girish Kasaravalli (Best Adapted Screenplay)
Pandiraj (Best Dialogue)
Kutty Srank
Kanasemba Kudureyaneri
Sachin Kundalkar
Feroz Abbas Khan
Gandhi, My Father
Abhijat Joshi, Rajkumar Hirani and Vidhu Vinod Chopra
Lage Raho Munna Bhai
Prakash Jha, Manoj Tyagi and Shridhar Raghavan
Manoj Tyagi and Nina Arora
Page 3
Gautam Ghose
Abar Aranye
Aparna Sen
Mr. and Mrs. Iyer
Kadal Pookkal
Madampu Kunjukuttan
Ashok Mishra
Rituparno Ghosh
Kadhal Kottai
Saeed Akhtar Mirza and Ashok Mishra
M.T. Vasudevan Nair
Satyajit Ray
M.T. Vasudevan Nair
M.T. Vasudevan Nair
K.S. Sethu Madhavan
M.T. Vasudevan Nair
Oru Vadakkan Veeragatha
Arundhati Roy
In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones
Adoor Gopalakrishnan
Budhdhadeb Dasgupta
Bhabendra Nath Saikia
Agni Snaan
Adoor Gopalakrishnan
G V Iyer
Adi Shankaracharya
Mrinal Sen
K. Balachander
Thanneer Thanneer
Mrinal Sen
Akaler Sandhane
Sai Paranjpye
T.S. Ranga and T.S. Nagabharana
Satyadev Dubey, Shyam Benegal and Girish Karnad
Vijay Tendulkar
No award
Satyajit Ray
Sonar Kella
Mrinal Sen and Ashish Burman
Tapan Sinha
Satyajit Ray
Puttanna Kanagal
Gejje Pooje
Pandit Anand Kumar
Anokhi Raat
S. L. Puram Sadanandan
Agni Puthri
Satyajit Ray