Monday, 23 June 2014


During the medieval period Indian classical music was broadly based on two traditions,
the Hindustani classical music prevalent in North India and the Carnatic music of South

HINDUSTANI CLASSICAL MUSIC Hindustani music lesson
Hindustani classical music may be traced back to the period of the Delhi Sultanate and to Amir Khusrau (AD 1253-1325) who encouraged the practice of musical performance
with particular instruments. He is believed to have invented the sitar and the tabla and is
said to have introduced new ragas.. Different styles of Hindustani music are Dhrupad, Dhamar, Thumri, Khayal and Tappa. It is said that Tansen’s music had the effect of magic. In fact his melodious songs are sung in every part of India even now with great interest. Some of Akbar’s courtiers patronised Musicians like Baiju Bawra, Surdas etc.
India also has a rich variety of musical instruments of different types . Amongst the stringed instruments the most famous are sitar, sarod, santoor and sarangi. Pakhawaj, tabla and Mridangam .  Likewise, flute, shehnai and nadaswaram are some of the chief wind instruments.

The compositions in Carnatic music may be attributed collectively to three composers
who lived between AD 1700 and 1850. They were Shyam Shastri, Thyagaraja and
Mutthuswami Dikshitar. Purandardasa was the  great composer of Carnatic music.
 The three great musicians experimented with new forms. Some notable musicians of this period are Maha Vaidyanath Ayyar (1844-93), Patnam Subrahmanya Ayyar (l854-1902) and Ramnad Srinivasa lyengar (l860-1919). 
Flute, veena, nadaswaram, mridangam, ghatam are some of the instruments to accompany Carnatic music.
the Carnatic alapana is similar to alap in Hindustani classical both lay stress on talam.

With the British rule came Western music. Indians adopted some of their instruments such as violin and clarinet to suit the demands of Indian music. Orchestration of music on stage is a new development. Use of cassettes replaced oral transmission of tunes and ragas..

Besides classical music India has a rich legacy of folk or popular music. This music represents the emotion of the masses. The simple songs are composed to mark every event in life. They may be festivals, advent of a new season, marriage or birth of a child.  Folk songs have their special meanings or messages. They often describe historical events and important rituals.Muslims sing Sojkhwani or mournful songs during Muharram and Christmas carols and choral music are sung in groups on the festive occasions.