Tuesday, 29 September 2015

Sample questions for media Law

Who acted as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly?
A.B R Ambedkar
B.C Rajagopalachari
C.Rajendra Prasad
D.Jawaharlal Nehru

Who of the following acted as
 the Constitutional Advisor to the Constituent Assembly?
A.VP Menon
B.Dr Rajendra Prasad
C.BN Rao
D.Dr Sachhidanand Sinha

·         The Objectives Resolution, which outlined the philosophy of the India Constitution, was moved in the Constituent Assembly by
A.Dr S Radhkrishanan
B.Dr Rajendra Prasad
C.Jawaharlal Nehru
D.B R Ambedkar

Constitution of India was adopted by constituent assembly on ?

§  25 October, 1948
§  25 October, 1949
§  26 November, 1948
§  26 November, 1949

Constitution of India came into effect from ?
A.    15 January, 1950
B.    26 January, 1950
C.     15 August, 1950
D.    15 January, 1950
o     View Answer

Who drafted the Indian Constitution?

Ans. – The Indian constitution was drafted by the Drafting Committee of the ‘Constituent Assembly.


Who was the chairman of the Constituent Assembly? Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee?

Ans. – Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the Chairman of Constituent Assembly. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of Drafting Committee.


-When was the Constitution adopted?

Ans. – The constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949.


When did the Constitution come into force?

Ans. – The constitution came into force on 26th January 1950.


According to the Preamble India is what kind of state?

Ans. – According to the original preamble India is a Sovereign, Democratic Republic. By 42nd amendment of the constitution India is made also a Socialist and Secular state.


-What are the political ideals, according to the Preamble India seeks to secure?

Ans. – India seeks to secure to her people:
Justice: Social Economic and Political.
Liberty: of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship
Equality: of status and opportunity, and Fraternity, assuring the dignity of the individual and unity of the nation.


How many Arts, are there in the Indian Constitution?

Ans. – The original constitution had 395 Arts and 7 schedules. Now after the 80th amendment of the constitution there are 405 Arts and 10 schedules in the constitution.


-What is meant by “Secular and Socialist” as described in the Preamble?

Ans. – The preamble describes India to be a secular state. It means that there is no established religion in India and that state does not give any preference to any religion in India.
The 42nd amendment of the Indian constitution makes India a socialist state. It means that the state shall abolish private ownership of the means of production and distribution. This however has not yet been achieved. On the other hand the state now encourages private ownership.

Bring out the significance of the terms “Sovereign, Democratic Republic” as mentioned in the Preamble.

Ans. – India is a sovereign state. It means the state in India is the supreme authority over all men and all associations within the country and is absolutely free from any outside control.
India is democratic. It means that in India all governments are formed on the basis of popular support.
India is republic. It means all offices of the state from the highest to the lowest are held on the basis of merit and no office of the state is held on the basis of hereditary right.

How many states and union territories are there in the Indian Union?

Ans. – There are 25 states and 7 union territories in the Indian Union.


What is the importance of Arts 370 of the Constitution?

Ans. – This Art gives the state of Jammu & Kashmir a separate constitutional status. Laws passed by the Indian Parliament apply to Jammu & Kashmir if they are accepted by the J. K. legislature.


Is the preamble to the Constitution justiciable in character?

Ans. – No. The preamble is not justiciable.

What is the necessity of the Preamble?

Ans. – The preamble is like an introduction to the constitution. The courts use the preamble to clarify: the meaning of the Law whenever there is an ambiguity.


Does the Indian Constitution recognize the principle of dual citizenship?

Ans. – Though India is a federation, the principle of dual citizenship has not been accepted in the constitution. All Indian’s are accepted as the citizens of India. There is no citizenship of the states.



– How many categories of fundamental rights of citizens has been recognized by the Indian Constitution?

Ans. – Originally the constitution conferred on the Indian citizens seven fundamental rights. They are (a) right to equality (b) right to freedom (c) right against exploitation (d) right to religious freedom. (e) right to education and culture (f) right to property and (g) right to constitutional remedies:. At present there are six fundamental rights. Right to private property has been removed from the list of fundamental rights by the 44th amendment of the constitution.


What is meant by equality in the eye of law?

Ans. – Equality in the eye of law as provided by Art. 14 of the constitution mean that nobody is above the law. Law applies to all persons equally.


What are the freedoms granted to citizens by Art 19 of the Constitution?

Ans. – Art 19 of the constitution grants six freedoms to the citizens They are right to freedom of (I) expression, (2) to assemble peaceably and without arms (3) to form association, (4) to move freely in India, (5) to five anywhere in India and (6) to adopt any profession or business.

 “India is a Secular State”. What does it mean?

Ans. – Indian secularism means that the state does not have any established religion, that people are free to practice and profess any religion and that the state does not show any preference to any religion.


What Arts of the Constitutions confer right to freedom of religion?

Ans. – Arts 25 to 28 confer right to freedom of religion on the citizens.


Is possession of private property a Fundamental Right?

Ans. – Private property was a fundamental right before the passing of 44th amendment of the constitution. Now the possession of private property is an ordinary legal right and not a fundamental right.


-Do the members of the armed forces enjoy the Fundamental Rights given by the Constitution?

Ans. – The parliament may restrict the fundamental rights by passing laws. Beyond such restrictions the members of the Armed Forces enjoy their fundamental rights.



-What are principal duties of the Indian Citizens?

Ans. – Obeying the constitution, showing respect to the national flag and the national anthem, defending India’s sovereignty, integrity, and unity protecting national properties and upholding Indias glorious mixed culture and also showing respect to woman are the principal duties of the Indian citizens.


-When were the duties of the citizens added to the Constitution?

Ans. – Ten duties of the Indian citizens have been added to the constitution by the 42nd amendment to the constitution.


In what chapter of the Constitution and in what Arts are the Directive principles of the Constitution given?

Ans. – In chapter IV Arts 35-51 the directive principle of the constitution are given.


-What is the principal difference between the directive principles and the fundamental rights?

Ans. – The fundamental rights are justiciable while the directive principals are non-justiciable i.e. the fundamental rights are enforced by the courts while the directives are not enforced by the courts.


-Name four important directives given in the Indian Constitution?

Ans. – (1) The states should provide help in cases of old age, unemployment and disability. (2) State should strive to reduce in­equality between individuals, groups and professions (3) State should promote and foster rural cottage industries. (4) The state should provide compulsory free primary education to children below 14 years if age.


– Name two directives based on the ideal of socialism?

Ans. – (A) The state should prevent concentration of the ownership of the means of production in the hands of the few (Art. 39c).
(B) The state should provide help and assistance in case of unemployment and disability.


-What directive is based on a Gandhian ideal?

Ans. -Art 45 of the constitution directs the state to promote and foster Panchayeti Raj in India.


-What are the value and importance of the directive principles?

Ans. – The directive principles though non-justiciable are not worthless. Sir B.N. Rao contends that the directives are moral precepts. K.M. Panikkar holds that the directives promise India to achieve economic socialism or economic democracy.



Indian Constitution And Media Law (Objective Question)
Q: - 1 India is a
(a) Communist country
(b) Capitalist country
(c) Secular country
(d) None of the above
Q: - 2 Who is the father of constitution?
(a) Dr Rajendra Prasad
(b) Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru
(c) Bal Ganga Dhar tilak
(d) Baba Saheb Bheem Rao Ambedker
Q: - 3 Indian constitution was inacted on
(a) 15 August 1947
(b) 26 August 1947
(c) 26 January 1950
(d) None of the above
Q: - 4 According to constitution India is
(a) Monopolistic State
(b) Welfare State
(c) Capitalist State
(d) None of the above
Q: - 5 India is a
(a) Communist Union
(b) Socialist Union
(c) Socialist Republic
(d) All of these
Q: - 6 India is a
(a) Presidential form of Govt.
(b) Parliamentary form of Govt.
(c) Executive form of Govt.
(d) All the above
Q: - 7 Who is the first citizen of India?
(a) Prime Minister
(b) Chief Justice of India
(c) Chief Election commissioner
(d) None
Q: - 8 Who is the supreme custodian of Justice?
(a) President of India
(b) Chief Justice of India
(c) Supreme court of India
(d) High courts
Q: - 9 Fundamental Rights are
(a) Seven
(b) Six2
Q: - 10 Right to life is
(a) Fundamental Right
(b) Human Rights
(c) Directive Policies
(d) None
Q: - 11 Fundamental Rights are freezed during
(a) War
(b) Elections
(c) All type of emergencies
(d) Never
Q: - 12 Judiciary is the
(a) Part of Govt.
(b) Part of parliament
(c) Part of Executive
(d) Independent body
Q: - 13 Which Article in constitution is specially for Independence of Press
(a) Article 13
(b) Article 15
(c) Article 17
(d) No separate Article
Q: - 14 Freedom of Press is given under
(a) Article 17
(b) Article 19
(c) Article 19-A
(d) None
Q: - 15 Press council of India is specially for
(a) Media
(b) Printing Industry
(c) Advertising Agency
(d) None
Q: - 16 Press council of was established in
(a) 1955
(b) 1960
(c) 1966
(d) 1980
Q: - 17 Press council of India consists of
(a) 18 members
(b) 20 members
(c) 25 members
(d) 28 members
Q: - 18 Who may be the chairman of the Press council of India?
(a) Any Minister
(b) Any eminent person
(c) Advocate General3
Q: - 19 Media is called
(a) 2 nd Pillar of democracy
(b) 3 rd Pillar of democracy
(c) 4 th Pillar of democracy
(d) None
Q: - 20 Separation of the Judiciary from the Executive has been provided in which of the following parts of the Indian Constitution?
(a) The Preamble
(b) The Fundamental Rights
(c) The Directive Principles of State Policy
(d) The Seventh Schedule 4
Q1. Indian constitution is secular and democratic by nature. Discuss
Q2. Define and Describe different types of constitution in brief.
Q3. Is Indian constitution written or unwritten? What do you understand by unwritten constitution?
Q4. Fundamental Rights are the democratic expression.
Q5. Define and describe fundamental rights given by Indian constitution.
Q6. How many Directive policies are given by Indian constitution .What is its
Q7. What do you understand by Fundamental Duties? What is its importance?
Q8. How many Fundamental Duties are described by the constitution?
Q9. Rights without duties are harmful for society rather than fruitful. How?
Q10. Freedom of press has been given by the constitution under which Article ?
Q11. No separate provision for freedom of press has been described in the constitution. Why?
Q12. What is the status of Fundamental Rights during emergencies and why?
Q13. What do you understand by freedom of expression What is its importance ?
Q14. Describe about Regulatory measures taken to control and balance media?
Q15. What is press council of India? Describe its structure?
Q16. When and how press council of India was established?
Q17. What is the role and function of press council of India. Discuss in brief.
Q18. Describe in brief about different media Regulatory bodies and their function
Q19. Media is called fourth pillar of democracy. What is its role and importance in strengthening democracy?

Q20. What do you understand by media ethics? Why they are important?

Monday, 28 September 2015

The Nature and power of Language

Language Defined: : A set of symbols that expresses ideas and allows people to think and communicate with each other. 

Image result for language is symbolic

Language is symbolic

The words like virtually all language are symbols.Symbols are more than  just labels. They are the way experience the word. The naming process operates in virtually every situation. We are ususally react to a stranger will depend on the symbols we can to categorize them as christian, jew, Hindu or Islam and so on.
• Symbol - something that is intended to stand for something else other than itself. – e.g. Words. The relationship between words and their meanings is (mostly) arbitrary. –

Language  is Rule governed

 Languages contain several types of rules
Phonological Rules: govern how words sound when pronounced.
Syntactic (sɪnˈtaktɪkRule: govern the structure of language the way symbols can be arranged
Semantic (sɪˈmæn.tɪk/)Rules: deal with the meaning of specific words.Without semantic rules communication would be impossible, because each of us would use symbols in unique ways unintelligible to one another.
Pragmatic Rule: govern how people use language in everyday interaction.

Power of Language : 
Language shape attitudes,

      • Naming: Names are one way to shape and reinforce a child 's personal identity. Name choice cal also be a powerful way to make a statement about cultural identity.

      • Credibility:An apparently legitimate speaker who utters an unintelligible message will be judged competent by an audience .
      • status: Several factors combine  to create  positive or negative impressions they are accent, choice of words, speech rate and even the age of a speaker. In most of cases speaker of standard dialect are rated as higher than non standard speaker in variety of ways.
      • Racism: The power of language to shape attitudes goes beyond individual cases and influences how we perceive entire groups of people.

Language reflect attitude: 
Language reflects our attitudes feeling of control, attraction, commitment, responsibility. All these are reflected in the way we use language.

      • Power: Powerful speeches gets the desired results in mainstream.Powerful language always enhance friendly relationship, sharing power with others
      • Affiliation:Language can also be a way of building and demonstrating solidarity with others.
      • Attraction and Interest:The language they can use suggest their  degree of interest and attraction towards a person, object or idea.

  • Trouble some Language :Slang and Jargon
  1. Slang is a language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar co culture or other group. Slang consists of regionalisms terms that are understood by people who live in one geographic area but that are incomprehensible to outsiders.  dog of china.Slang can be age related also
  1. Jargon: The specialised vocabulary that functions as a kind of shorthand for people with common backgrounds and experience.Jargon can be a valuable kind of shorthand for people who understand its use. 

  • Source: Understanding Human Communication, Tenth Indian Edition, Ronald B Adler, George Rodman, page no 72-78

Thursday, 24 September 2015

Guidelines for Delivery-Non verbal aspects of presenting a speech

Enthusiasm is shown through both the visual and auditory aspects of our delivery of speech. 

                                                                                                  Visual aspects of Delivery include appearance, movement, posture, facial expression, and eye contact.

Appearance is not a presentation variable as much as preparation variable. Speakers it seems are perceived to be more credible when they look professional look.

The way you walk to the front of your audience will express your confidence and enthusiasm. Movement can also help you maintain contact with all members of your audience.

Generally speaking good posture means standing with your spine relatively straight your shoulders relatively squared off and your feet angled t to keep your body from falling over sideways.

Facial expression
The expression on your face can be more meaningful to an audience than the words you say. Your facial expression will reflect your involvement with your message. Don’t try to fake it. Just get involved in your message. And your face will take care of itself.

Eye Contact
Eye contact is perhaps the most important non verbal facet of delivery. Eye contact not only increases your direct contact with your audience but also can be used to control your nervousness. Direct eye contact is a form of reality testing.

Auditory Aspects of Delivery

 Our para language - the way you use your voice says a  good deal about you especially your  sincerity and enthusiasm.

Your delivery should be loud enough so that your audience members can hear you.  Everything Say but not loud they feel you are speaking to someone in the next room.

Rate: Your speed in speaking is called your rate. There is a range of personal differences in speaking rate. Normal speaking speed however is between 120 and 150 words per minute.


The highness or lowness of your voice pitch is controlled by the frequency at which your vocal folds vibrate as you push air through them. You should control your pitch so that your listeners believe you are talking with them rather than performing in front of them.

Source: Page No 344-345 Public communicationUnderstanding Human communication-Tenth Indian edition, Ronald B Adler& George Rodman, Oxford University press