Wednesday, 15 October 2014

Stage Movement and Acting Rules

Stage Right: The actor’s right as he stands onstage facing the audience.
Stage Left: The actor’s left as he stands onstage facing the audience.
Downstage: Toward the audience.
Upstage: Away from the audience.
Below: Toward the audience. Same as “Downstage of.”
Above: Away from the audience. Same as “Upstage of.”
In: Toward the center of the stage.
Out: Away from the center of the stage.


Tuesday, 14 October 2014

News Broadcasters Association (NBA)

The News Broadcasters Association (NBA) represents the private television news & current affairs broadcasters. It is the collective voice of the news & current affairs broadcasters in India .It is an organization funded entirely by its members. The NBA has presently comprising 47 news and current affairs channels as its members. The NBA presents a unified and credible voice before the Government, on matters that affect the growing industry.

Objectives of the News Broadcasters Association (NBA)

  • To promote, aid, help, encourage, develop, protect and secure the interests of the News Broadcasters in the Indian television Industry and other related entities.
  • To promote awareness about the latest developments in the television industry relating to News Broadcasting and to disseminate knowledge amongst its members and the general public regarding such developments.
  • To provide for the members a place of meeting so as to enable them to work in consensus to achieve common goals for the overall betterment of their industry and to have a common platform/forum at which they may air their grievances and arrive at solutions.
  • To promote the growth of friendly relations amongst the members and amongst persons engaged in the production and broadcasting of the television software and especially to encourage co-operation among the members so as to maximize mutual benefits.
  • To protect all its members from persons or entities who carry on unfair and/or unethical practices or who discredit the television industry.
  • No objects of the Company will be carried out without obtaining prior approval/ NOC from the concerned authority, wherever required.

Fundamental principles

Professional electronic journalists should accept and understand that they operate as trustees of the public and , make it their mission to seek the truth and to report it fairly with integrity and independence. Professional journalists should stand fully accountable for their actions.
The procedures that would help journalists of the electronic media to adhere to the highest possible standards of public service and integrity.
 News channels recognise that they have a special responsibility in the matter of adhering to high standards of journalism since they have the most potent influence on public opinion. 
Broadcasters shall, in particular, ensure that they do not select news for the purpose of either promoting or hindering either side of any controversial public issue. News shall not be selected or designed to promote any particular belief, opinion or desires of any interest group.
The fundamental purpose of dissemination of news in a democracy is to educate and inform people of the happenings in the country.
Broadcasters shall ensure a full and fair presentation of news, as the same is the fundamental responsibility of each news channel.Besides, the selection of items of news shall also be governed by public interest and importance based on the significance of these items of news in a democracy.

Principles of self-regulation

The News Broadcasters Association has established commonly accepted content guidelines as a way of practising self-regulation. The purpose of these principles of self-regulation and compliance with, the basic values and objectives that news channels enshrine.
Impartiality and objectivity in reporting
Accuracy is at the heart of the news television business. despite this, there are errors, channels should be transparent about them. Errors must be corrected promptly and clearly, whether in the use of pictures, a news report, a caption, a graphic or a script. Channels should also strive not to broadcast anything which is obviously defamatory or libellous. 
Ensuring neutrality
TV news channels must provide for neutrality by offering equality for all affected parties, players and actors in any dispute or conflict to present their point of view. Though neutrality does not always come down to giving equal space to all sides (news channels shall strive to give the main viewpoints of the main parties), news channels must strive to ensure that allegations are not portrayed as fact and charges are not conveyed as an act of guilt.
Reporting on crime and safeguards to ensure crime and violence are not glorified
Visuals broadcast do not induce, glorify, incite, or positively depict violence and its perpetrators, regardless of ideology or context. Specific care must be taken not to broadcast visuals that can be prejudicial or inflammatory. This includes taking adequate precaution while showing any visual instance of pain, fear or suffering, and visuals or details of methods of suicide and self-harm of any kind, and will not cross boundaries of good taste and decency.
Depiction of violence or intimidation against women and children
News channels will ensure that no woman or juvenile, who is a victim of sexual violence, aggression, trauma, or has been a witness to the same, is shown on television without due effort taken to conceal the identity.  Similarly, the identity of victims of child abuse and juvenile delinquents will not be revealed, and their pictures will be morphed to conceal their identity.
Sex and nudity 
News channels will ensure that they do not show, without morphing, nudity of the male or female form. Channels will also not show explicit images of sexual activity or sexual perversions or acts of sexual violence like rape or molestation, or show pornography, or the use of sexually suggestive language. 
As a rule, channels must not intrude on the private lives or personal affairs of individuals unless there is a clearly established larger and identifiable public interest for such a broadcast. The underlying principle that news channels abide by is that the intrusion of private spaces, records, transcripts, telephone conversations and any other material will not be for salacious interest but only when warranted in the public interest. However, it is also understood that the pursuit of truth and the news is not possible through the predetermined principle of prior permission;
Endangering national security
News channels will also refrain from allowing broadcasts that encourage secessionist groups and interests, or reveal information that endangers lives and national security. 
Refraining from advocating or encouraging superstition and occultism
News channels will not broadcast any material that glorifies superstition and occultism in any manner. In broadcasting any news about such a genre, news channels will also issue public disclaimers to ensure that viewers are not misled into believing or emulating such beliefs and activity. Therefore, news channels will not broadcast "as fact" myths about "supernatural" acts, apparitions and ghosts, personal or social deviations or deviant behaviour, and recreations of the same. Wherever references are made to such cases, news channels will issue air riders/disclaimers/warnings to ensure that such beliefs or events are not passed off "as fact" since they can hurt rational sensibilities.
Sting operations 
News channels will not allow sex and sleaze as a means to carry out sting operations, the use of narcotics and psychotropic substances, or any act of violence, intimidation, or discrimination as a justifiable means in the recording of any sting operation. 
Viewer feedback 
All news channels will,  create provision to receive consumer feedback.In the event any news channel gets a specific complaint, if found to be true it will admit to the same on air and will respond in fullness and fairness to the viewer.

Monday, 13 October 2014

the steps in plot development!

Story Development

There are so many ways to approach an idea. It having an easy and systematic method to catalog ideas, dialogue, In  recent years software developers have created products to simplify this process; some are for outlining/brainstorming and others specifically organize dramatic elements under a theoretical umbrella. 

  1. Create a world that's true to real life or fantastical or that mixes the mundane with the magical. But whatever set of rules you create for that world, make sure you follow them.
  2. Write a conflict that builds as the play progresses. As you structure the conflict, think in terms of your play having a beginning, a middle and an end.
  3. Write characters that want something (which puts them in conflict with other characters) and try to get what they want at every moment.
  4. Make sure that each character has something at stake, a consequence if he doesn't get what he wants.
  5. Create a "ticking clock" that puts the characters under pressure to get what they want right away.
  6. Make sure there is a good reason, an "event," for your play. It's not enough for two characters to sit around and talk for a while and then leave. There needs to be some important reason why we're watching them now, at this particular moment.
  7. Write dialogue that illuminates your characters and advances the plot at the same time.
  8. Make each character speak in a distinctive voice. If you have trouble with that, try imagining a specific actor you know - even if it's someone who will never play the part - in the role.
  9. Do not have a character tell us something she can show us instead. For example, it's much more effective to hide under the bed than to say "I'm afraid."
  10. Give each character a "moment," something that justifies the character's existence in your play and that makes him attractive for an actor to play.

Friday, 10 October 2014


Lighting can be very important for many types of event. It can provide illumination to see by, can suggest moods, can emphasize shape and texture and can direct the audience's attention to the area you want. Once the purpose of the light has been decided the correct equipment to create it must be selected and carefully positioned and controlled. This short tutorial is aimed at explaining the basics about lighting - the tools at your disposal and some of the fundamental design principles. We hope it will give you the necessary information to get you started but we are always on hand to help and advise if you get into difficulty.

Choosing Lighting Fixtures
There are a variety of different lighting Fixtures (aka Lanterns, Lights) at the disposal of a lighting designer. These can be split into 4 basic categories : Wash Lights, Spot Lights, Beam Lights and Flood Lights. These can also have other names but we'll work with these for the present.

Lighting can be very important for many types of event. It can provide illumination to see by, can suggest moods, can emphasize shape and texture and can direct the audience's attention to the area you want. Once the purpose of the light has been decided the correct equipment to create it must be selected and carefully positioned and controlled. This short tutorial is aimed at explaining the basics about lighting - the tools at your disposal and some of the fundamental design principles. We hope it will give you the necessary information to get you started but we are always on hand to help and advise if you get into difficulty.
Choosing Lighting Fixtures
There are a variety of different lighting Fixtures (aka Lanterns, Lights) at the disposal of a lighting designer. These can be split into 4 basic categories : Wash Lights, Spot Lights, Beam Lights and Flood Lights. These can also have other names but we'll work with these for the present.

Wash Light
Produces a soft edged beam which looks quite natural. Beam size can normally be adjusted and multiple sources blend together easily. There are a few sub-categories of these; fresnels, prism-convex and pebble-convex. The Fresnel is probably the most widely used of these.
Spot Light

Spot Light also known as a Profile Spot, this has a more complex lens assembly and allows you to focus the beam so that you can have a soft edged beam like the wash light or a hard edged one. Most Profile spots allow you to insert a Gobo - a metal disc with cut-outs - to breakup the light or to project shapes and images. This can produce a variety of effects.

Beam Light
The Beam Light is a little different as all the optics (reflector, lens, etc) are contained in the lamp (aka bulb). This brings the cost of the fixture down but the lamps are a little more expensive. The most common example of this fixture is the Parcan. These lamps produce a very intense beam of light which can be very effective although there is no control over the beam and the spread is a little uneven. Used extensively in Rock'n'Roll due to the intensity of the light which works well with strong colours.

Flood Light

Last, but not least, the flood light. This has no adjustable controls and produces a very wide spread of light. It is normally only used to illuminate backdrops.The choice of lantern will then depend on the application. Wash lights produce a more natural light and are therefore suited more to theatre and film. Live music favours a more intense and visual form of lighting and therefore beam lights are the normal choice along with spotlights for effect.

Power Requirements
An important factor to bear in mind is the amount of electrical power required to use these lanterns. They are rated much higher than normal domestic lamps with power ratings between 500 - 2000 Watts. It is important that you do not try to overload the mains supply at the venue. The following table gives the approximate current requirements for the most common lamps. All ratings assume a 240 volt mains supply.

Lamp Power Rating
Current Required
500 Watts
2.1 Amps
650 Watts
2.7 Amps
1000 Watts
4.2 Amps
1200 Watts
5 Amps
2000 Watts
8.3 Amps

Bearing in mind that you may be planning to run the lighting rig off a 13amp socket, it is easy to see that you will not get many lanterns running without blowing the fuse. One way around this is to use more than one wall socket. The typical ring main in most buildings is rated at 32 amps. However. other services in the building may already be using some of this so you will need to do some checking to see if the available power is sufficient.
Dimming and Control
If you just want to provide basic light then the lighting can be plugged straight into the mains To allow control and creativity you will need to employ some kind of dimming or switching.
Dimmers allow the voltage being fed to the lamp to be varied and hence the output of the lantern can change to. Dimmers come in various shapes, sizes and configurations. The most common form for touring use is the 6 Channel Dimmer Rack. This provides six independently controlled channels. 
Control of lighting requires a control desk which sends electrical signals to the dimmers to set their levels. These may range from a simple 6 slider panel to an 'all-singing, all-dancing' state-of-the-art computer control system. Generally, if the lighting requires only basic dimming and the changes are not too complex then a manually controlled board with faders will be fine. If you require lights to 'chase' in sequence or the 'cues' are very complex and numerous then you will be looking for a control desk with memory and effects Rigging capabilities.
So, you've decided on what lights to use and how you will power and control them. The next step is where to put them.
There are several options when it comes to 'hanging' or 'rigging' lanterns.
They can be hung from bars. . A 'Hook Clamp' is used to attach the lamp firmly to the bar.
Trussing is commonly used now to hang lamps. It is comprised of aluminium alloy tubing arranged in a triangular or square box section. It is considerably stronger than a single bar and is manufactured in many different permutations to allow for many types of rig.
 Stands can support a single lamp or several lamps using a T-bar, a horizontal bar which attaches to the top of the stand. .
Finally, lamps can be set of the floor or on other objects. Some lamps can get very hot, however, so some form of low stand is commonly in order. Again, you should take care to avoid placing such lamps where they may be a hazard to people.
Its no good simply hanging a few lanterns and turning them on - the result would look patchy and would more than likely fail to light some of the desired areas. Each lantern needs to be 'Focused' to point to the correct place with the desired beam angle and focus. However, when done correctly, the lighting should be seamless and look fantastic.
he most natural positioning is to have the lantern above and in front of the subject at about a 45° angle. 
In practice, a single lantern cannot provide a natural light. Multiple lanterns are used to achieve this. For example, two lanterns above the subject at a 45° angle - one to the left and one to the right both pointing in towards the subject.

Now that you have hung and focused your rig, you need to use all the fixtures to light your show. This part of the process is known as the Plot.
during the 'Plot' various lighting states are created to light the performance area. These lighting states are referred to as Scenes or Cues. Some shows may require just one lighting state (or Cue) whereas others - like some West End shows - use hundreds. During this process, the Lighting Designer (LD), the Lighting Operator and the Director will sit down and go through the show building each lighting state and recording it as a Cue for recall during the show run.

Guidelines for radio programme production

Radio is a crucial tool in introducing and updating consumers on important issues of the day. It helps consumer groups reach a wide variety of people – even those in the most remote areas – and is relatively inexpensive.  Producing a good radio programme may seem like a relatively simple task, but in reality it requires a great deal of thought and,effort to provide consumers to listen to and remember.
The Guidelines and audio cassette use the  British Broadcasting Service (BBC) is the pre-eminent producer of radio programmes in the world. Much can be learned from its methods – and mistakes!  And hopefully, consumer organizations can use these Guidelines to break down traditional barriers and provide ever-more innovative and dynamic programmes for consumers.

Guidelines for radio programme production

Making a radio programme is a voyage of discovery. There is always something new
to learn, some different technique to try,some unexpected turn of events to explore
– and there i

Making a consumer affairs programme is a particularly good example of radio which is actively engaged with its audience. Their concerns become our concerns – and consumer issues which you have discovered, and illuminated – will enhance their awareness..
Cultural norms and expectations will differ from country to country. What constitutes a
consumer issue in one part of the world might be deemed unimportant in another.
But the basic elements in making a good programme are the same, no matter what part
of the world you live in. Good craftsmanship, focus, enthusiasm, attention to detail, using your imagination – these exist beyond cultural boundaries, or issues of regional differences.

Making a radio programme often involves several people. There might be an editor,
producer(s), writer(s) or reporter(s), production assistant, secretary, and technical staff all working on it, plus those who become involved with the programme through being interviewed or consulted. A radio programme can do many things.
For example, it can
• inform
• educate
• entertain
• campaign
It can even do all these things within the same programme. But it should have a primary
focus. For example – a programme featuring a  Guidelines for radio programme production

Who is the programme for?
The programmer should know the listeners, whom he programme is for the
of course.
Factors to keepnin mind are:
A broadcaster  can attract listeners; it will depend on what time of day your programme is broadcast, and on what day of the week it is broadcast.
• if we broadcast a particular type of item, you will attract a particular type of listener.
If we want to attract a broad general audience we must deal with concerns which will attract a broad audience.
we want to cover issues which are of interest to listeners with special interests or requirements – for example, disabled listeners.
• convince your listeners that we are on their side, and interested in what concerns them
• encourage them to feel part of the programme
• encourage them to contribute their views and concerns to you
• not patronise them.

The basic options are:
• Magazine programmes
• Single issue programme or programmes
• Series of magazine programmes with single issue specials

Magazine programmes
These are programmes containing a variety of different items. The programme will have longer and shorter pieces, and might include a regular round-up of consumer news, an interview, a discussion, an in-depth feature, a short ‘filler’item. A regular series covering consumer affairs would most likely be composed of magazine programmes, because they allow for coverage of a wide variety of issues and concerns. Magazine programmes may be broadcast ‘live’or ‘pre-recorded’ , though live programmes
will almost certainly contain a number of pre-recorded elements.

Single Issue programmes
These are programmes which are devoted to one issue, covered in greater depth than could . The issue must be of great enough concern to warrant a full programme; nevertheless it is more difficult to achieve broad audience appeal using this format. Single issue programmes are usually always pre-recorded, although they may allow time for a ‘live’ studio discussion following the recorded section of the show.

Magazine series with Single issue specials
This format provides the best of both worlds:a regular magazine series, with the occasional special allowing for more in-depth coverage of issues deemed to be particularly significant.

What duration is available to you will ultimately be decided by the radio station
or network which is broadcasting your programme, but as a general guideline:
Conventionally, radio magazine programmes broadcast by the BBC have tended to be of thirty minutes duration.

Deciding on your format and approach
It was decided that issues of specific concern to those two groups should be included in “You and Yours”, rather than in separate programmes. “You and Yours” has a large production team and an established history, and is therefore able to sustain an hour long daily programme; it would still be advisable for programme makers setting up a new consumer affairs programme, to aim, at least initially, for a
thirty minute time slot.

Building a programme
Whether your programme is a one-off, or a whole series, whether it is a magazine programme or an in-depth look at a single issue, it will need a presenter – someone to explain what’s happening and guide the listener through the subject (s) being dealt with. This person is crucial to the success of your programme. A presenter must:
• establish his or her authority and confidence. (nothing bothers an audience
more than hearing a presenter who sounds unsure, tense, confused, or diffident)
• sound genuinely interested
• convey goodwill toward the audience and the participants in the programme
(even where a confrontation is necessary). A presenter may need to challenge
someone’s view, but should not do it with vindictiveness or spite.
• be able to represent ‘the ordinary person’ when confronted with experts; the
presenter should be able to clarify or interpret the expert’s answers, if necessary
• never patronise
• speak clearly and have a generally appealing voice and manner.

If you were listening to a piece of music which had the same pace and rhythm all the way through, no change of pace or mood, you would soon be bored! be aware of the importance of changing the mood and pace as you move from one item to another.
The tone of your programme will be set by the presenter’s general manner, and the content. listeners would most appreciate, and experience will help you find a tone which suits your purposes, and your audience.
• consumer affairs publications and press releases
• newspaper items
• special interest groups and societies
• individual consumers who contact you
• events guides
• press releases from government andother organisations
• campaigns by established or ad hoc groups
• novelty or humourous items or events
• new products – effectiveness, safety
• unusual new products
• public services/utilities
• unusual new businesses
• community groups
• alternative lifestyle groups
• medical news or journals, health, diet
• pollution issues/pollution monitoring groups

Programme elements
Whether you are producing a magazine programme, or a single-issue programme, the
basic content will probably be made up of similar elements:
• script
• interviews
• with ‘ordinary people’
• with experts
• with official spokespersons from government or organisations
• vox pops
• features
• discussions
• archive material
• actuality
• news round-ups
• humourous or ‘light’ items
• special effects

• music