Berlo’s Model of Communication- the SMCR model

 The Berlo’s model of communication takes into account the emotional aspect of the message. Berlo’s model of communication operates on the SMCR model.

In the SMCR model

  • S - Stands for Source
  • M - Message
  • C - Channel
  • R - Receiver

Let us now study the all the factors in detail:

S - Source

The source, also known as the sender, is the one who has the  thought originates. He is the one who transfers the information to the receiver after carefully putting his thoughts into words.

How does the source or the sender transfer his information to the recipient ?

the source or the sender transfer his information to the recipient  with the help of communication skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social System and Culture.

  • Communication Skills

    An individual must possess excellent communication skills to make his communication effective and create an impact among the listeners. The speaker must know where to take pauses, where to repeat the sentences, how to speak a particular sentence, how to pronounce a word and so on. 

  • Attitude

    The sender must have the right attitude to create a long lasting impression on the listeners. An individual must be an Viscom graduate from a reputed institute, but he would be lost in the crowd without the right attitude.

  • Knowledge

     Knowledge is actually the clarity of the information which the speaker wants to convey to the receiver.  One must be thorough in what he is speaking with complete in-depth knowledge of the subject. 

  • Social System

    The listeners were irritated merely because the speaker ignored the social structure of the environment in which he was communicating. He had forgotten about the second party's sentiments, cultural beliefs, and religious convictions.

  • Culture

    The cultural background of the community or listeners with whom the speaker is communicating or delivering his speech is referred to as culture.

M - Message

When an individual converts his thoughts into words, a message is created. The process is also called as Encoding.

Any message further comprises of the following elements:

  • Content

     It is very important for the speaker to carefully choose the words and take good care of the content of the speech. The content has to be sensible, accurate, crisp, related to the thought to hit the listeners bang on and create an immediate impact.

    The substance or script of the talk is referred to as content. In other words, it is the foundation of any communication. 

     The speaker must carefully select his or her words and give special attention to the topic of the speech. To have an immediate impact on the listeners, the content must be sensible, precise, and succinct(succinct implies the greatest possible compression)

  • Element:  The speech must be coupled with lots of hand movements, gestures, postures, facial expressions, body movements to capture the attention of the listeners and make the speech impressive. Hand movements, gestures, postures, facial expressions, body movements, gestures all come under the elements of the message.

  • Treatment

    Treatment is actually the way one treats his message and is conveys to the listeners.  This is referred to as the treatment of the message. One must understand how to present his message so that the message is conveyed in the most accurate form.

  • Structure

    A message cannot be expressed in one go. It has to be properly structured in order to convey the message in the most desired form.

  • Code

    The communication code must be right. Your body movements, language, expressions, and gestures are the communication's codes, and they must be exact or the message will be corrupted and the recipient would never be able to decode the proper information.

C - Channel

Channel - Channel actually refers to the medium how the information flows from the sender to the receiver.

The five senses are represented by the channels Hearing, Tasting, Seeing, and Smelling.Touching. This allows humans to communicate with one another.

R - Receiver

For a smooth flow of information and a better grasp of the message, the receiver should be on the same platform as the speaker. He should have good communication skills in order to understand what the speaker is saying. He must have a positive mindset in order to comprehend the message. His knowledge should be on par with that of the audience, and he should be knowledgeable about the subject. He should have the same social and cultural background as the speaker.


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