Tuesday, 16 September 2014

Intercultural Communication-Cross-cultural communication

                                            Intercultural Communication

Intercultural communication is defined as communication, and the study of it, among peoples of different cultural, ethnic and tribal backgrounds. Because of the inherent differences between the encoder and decoder, the risk of  Misunderstanding is particularly high in intercultural situations. The non verbal communication(symbolic aspect of communication) and its reliance on encoding and decoding are particularly important in intercultural communication, which encompasses both verbal and nonverbal elements.

An important aspect of intercultural communication is an understanding of social role relationships and expectations within various cultures.

 Personalness deals with what is expected and tolerated. This varies greatly, from the reserve of
Asian society to the gregariousness of Latin and Mediterranean cultures.
 Formality is a related area, often focusing on existing relationships such as teacher-student,
doctor-patient, salesman-buyer whether to use first names or surnames and whether to accompany these with honorifics such as “mister” in English.

Social hierarchy focuses on cultural norms, particularly those associated with authority or station
in life. In some cultures, social deference is very important; in others, social equality is the norm.

 The degree of allowable deviation is another element in intercultural communication, dealing
with acceptable looseness or tightness within a social system.. Focus on this element leads to distinguishing between two types of societies: individualistic cultures that value individual freedom, choice and uniqueness, and collectivist cultures that value the group over the individual.
 Terms and Concepts in Intercultural Communication
Etic is a communication term referring to the understanding or explanation of a culture from outside. 

Emic refers to understanding or explanation of a culture from within.

Culture is the dynamic and living patterns that define a society, including its characteristic beliefs, attitudes, habits and behaviors. Aspects of culture include language,religion, nationality, ethnicity, values, customs, family and social structures, and so on. Being part of a culture is learned, initially from parents and family, later from widening social surroundings. Culture also incorporates symbols, rituals, values, heroes and myths, which combine to help both transmit and reinforce the culture.

 Race is a term used to define people by physical or sociohistorical characteristics according to their common ancestry. 

Ethnicity refers to groups within a race who share a common culture. Both terms are undergoing change.

Intracultural communication is the study of communication within a particular cultural or social group.  

Intercultural communication is the study of communication among various cultures.

 Interethnic communication between people of different ethnic background within the same race(Tamils),

 Interreligious communication ; the relation between people of different religious affiliations or backgrounds),

Interdenominational communication the relatin between people of different sects or denominations within a single religion. Siva, vaishnava,

Cross-cultural communication is the study of a particular idea or interaction within one culture, compared with the same idea or interaction within other cultures.