Sunday, 25 February 2018

SOCIAL MEDIA THEORIES

Social media
These are websites and computer programs that allow people to communicate and share information on the internet using a computer or mobile phone.  Now social media is consider as one of the hottest areas of interpersonal communication research; such as  how technology is influencing our interpersonal communication and how our interpersonal communication is influencing the development of technologies. 

Our interpersonal relationships has been changed lot by Technology . Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) is  altering the norms of interpersonal interaction and creating a new system of messages by which people attempt to understand one another both verbally and nonverbally.


According to Mcluhan , technology refers to human inventions that enhance communication. The new technologies like alphabets, printing press, electronic media and now digital communication have effect on man’s cognition and social organization which in turn affect the culture of any society. 

SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY
Social exchange theory defined by sociologist, George Homans . Social exchange as the exchange of activity, tangible or intangible, and more or less rewarding or costly, between at least two persons.Social exchange theory is  influenced by a social psychological and sociological perspective. Social exchange theory has been generally analyzed by comparing human interactions with the marketplace. 
Social exchange theory have some key concept; they are  include reciprocity, fairness and negotiated rules, with information, approval, respect, power, group gain and personal satisfaction among the rewards in successful transactions.”

Social exchange theory views exchange as a social behavior that may result in both economic and social outcomes.

Online social networking is an ideal application of social networking theory. Researchers  find that positive social influence to use an online community increases online community self-disclosure; reciprocity increases self-disclosure; online community trust increases self-disclosure; and privacy risk beliefs decrease self-disclosure. 

THE SOCIAL PENETRATION THEORY
The theory was formulated by psychologists Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor in 1973 to understand relationship development between individuals.  It is also called the “onion theory” of personality, since “layers” of personality are penetrated as time passes and intimacy grows. Social penetration theory was developed to explain the evolution of interpersonal relationships. 
The social penetration theory states that the relationship development occurs primarily through self-disclosure, or intentionally revealing personal information such as personal motives or desires, feelings, thoughts, and experiences to others. This theory is also guided by the assumptions that relationship development is systematic and predictable. Self-disclosure is the major way to bring a relationship to a new level of intimacy.
The Social Penetration Theory explain the relationships, which is become more intimate over a period of time. The maintaining relationship determine the people’s willing to reveal their more personal information; For ex FB relationships. Millions of friendships have formed from a friend request. A person may start to follow you, but constant and direct interaction will lead to more intimate friendships that go beyond the computer or cell phone.  Maintaining relationships also relies on intimate exchanges by both parties.
The process of self-revelation is influenced by three major factors, which are:  personal characteristics, reward-cost assessments, and the situational context. 
The social penetration theory (SPT) proposes that, as relationships develop,  from relatively shallow, non-intimate levels to deeper, more intimate ones. 

THE STRONG AND WEAK TIES THEORY 
The Strong and  Weak tie theory derives by Nick Granovetter .

The Strong and Weak Ties Theory says  that people relationship levels depends on time, emotional intensity, intimacy and reciprocal service. The weaker connections also serve an important purpose, they help you connect to another part of the world that we  may not be aware of.

When Granovetter talks about ties in social networks, he defines a strong tie as being your close friend and a weak tie as your remote friend. An average Facebook user, who has no experience with social network theory or has never heard of Granovetters theory,

The individuals with few weak ties will be deprived of information from distant parts of the social system and will be confined to the provincial news and views of their close friends. This deprivation will not only insulate them from the latest ideas and fashions but may put them in a disadvantaged position in the labour market, where advancement can depend,

MEDIA RICHNESS THEORY, OR  INFORMATION RICHNESS THEORY OR MRT,
This theory was  introduced by Richard L. Daft and Robert H. Lengel in 1986 . This is consider as an extension of information processing theory.

 MRT is used to rank and evaluate the richness of certain communication media, such as phone calls, video conferencing, and email. Media Richness Theory provides a framework for describing a communication medium's ability to reproduce the information sent over it without loss or distortion. For example, a phone call cannot reproduce visual social cues  while video conferencing, which affords the transmission of gestures and body language. MRT explains that richer, personal communication mediums are generally more effective for communicating of equivocal issues than less rich media.

Media richness theory states that all communication media vary in their ability to enable users to communicate and to change understanding. The degree of this ability is known as a medium's "richness."
Media richness depends on
  • Ability to handle multiple information cues simultaneously
  • Ability to facilitate rapid feedback
  • Ability to establish a personal focus
  • Ability to utilize natural language

 

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