Wednesday, 7 January 2015


A film movement consists of two elements:
Films that are produced within a particular period and/or nation and that share significant traits of style and form.
Filmmakers who were operate within a common production structure and who share certain assumptions about filmmaking. Since a film movement consists of not only films but also the activities of specific filmmakers. For each period and nation    relevant factors that affect the cinema. These factors include the state of the film industry, artistic theories held by the film‑ elements. These factors necessarily help explain how a particular movement began, what shaped its development, and what affected its decline.

Early Experimental Cinema   U.S., France, England

For centuries, humans had experimented with what would become the two key elements of cinema: the projection of images using light  and the illusion of motion created by exploiting the optical phenomenon called "persistence of vision" .

The "birth" of the movies was actually a gradual process of evolution. It involved a number of individuals in Europe, the United Kingdom, and the United States.W.K. Laurie Dickson, a researcher at the Edison Laboratories, is credited with the invention of a practicable form of celluloid strip containing a sequence of images, the basis of a method of photographing and projecting moving images. In 1894, Thomas Edison introduced to the public the Kinetograph, the first practical moving picture camera, and the Kinetoscope.

A film could be under a minute long and would usually present a single scene, authentic or staged, of everyday life, a public event, a sporting event or slapstick. There was little to no cinematic technique: no editing and usually no camera movement, and flat, stagey compositions. But the novelty of realistically moving photographs was enough for a motion picture industry to mushroom before the end of the century, in countries around the world.

Classical Hollywood Silent Cinema       U.S.
Classic Hollywood Silent Cinema (1908-1927) a term used in film history, designates both a visual and sound style for making motion pictures and a mode of production that arose in the American film industry of the 1910s and 1920s.
The mode of production came to be known as the Hollywood studio system and the star system, which standardized the way movies were produced. All film workers (actors, directors, etc.) were employees of a particular film studio. This resulted in a certain uniformity to film style: directors were encouraged to think of themselves as employees rather than artists, and hence auteurs (
  1. a film director who influences their films so much that they rank as their author.)
did not flourish (although some directors, such as Alfred Hitchcock and Orson Welles, fought against these restrictions).
The end of Hollywood classicism came with the collapse of the studio system, the growing popularity of auteurism among directors, and the increasing influence of foreign films and independent filmmaking.

French Impressionism France       (1918-1930)
French Impressionism was dominated by intimated deep psychological narratives, French Impressionism was made up of a young group of directors in Post World War I France. Impressionist films manipulate plot time and subjectivity and the registering of characters mental states, dreams, fantasies, etc.

German Expressionism  Germany          (1919-1926)

German Expressionism (1919-1926) also referred to as Expressionism in filmmaking, developed in Germany (especially Berlin) during the 1920s. During the period of recovery following World War I, the German film industry was booming, but because of the hard economic times filmmakers found it difficult to create movies . The filmmakers of the German UFA studio developed their own style, by using symbolism and mise en scène to insert mood and deeper meaning into a movie.

The first Expressionist films, notably The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), The Golem (1915), and Nosferatu (1922) were highly symbolic and deliberately surrealistic portrayals of filmed stories. The first Expressionist films made up for a lack of lavish budgets by using set designs with wildly non-realistic, geometrically absurd sets, along with designs painted on walls and floors to represent lights, shadows, and objects. The plots and stories of the Expressionist films often dealt with madness, insanity, betrayal, and other "intellectual" topics

Surrealism      France, Spain/Europe     (1924-1930)

The truest aspects of Surrealism in film are often found in passing frames of a larger film; the sudden emergence of the uncanny into the "normal" which may or may not be further explored in the rest of the film. The original group spent hours going from film to film, often not finishing one before seeking another, partly in hopes of catching just such ephemeral moments, and partly with the idea of "stitching together" a film in their own minds out of the disparate parts.

Soviet Montage/Constructivism Russia                      

The Soviet Montage movement began in 1924/25 and ended at 1930. During the Montage movement's existence, perhaps fewer than thirty films were made in the style.  The central aspect of Soviet Montage style was the area of editing. Cuts should stimulate the spectator

Poetic Realism       France             (1930-1939)

Poetic Reallism (1930-1939) A film movement in France leading up to World War II. The films center on marginalized characters who get a last chance at love, but are ultimately disappointed. They have a tone of nostalgia and bitterness. They are "poetic" because of a heightened aestheticism that sometimes draws attention to the representational aspects of the films.

Italian Neo Realism Italy        1942-1951)

Italian Neo-realism (1942-1951) is a film movement which started in 1943.The movement is characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class, filmed in long takes on location, frequently using nonprofessional actors for secondary and sometimes primary roles. Italian neorealist films mostly contend with the difficult economical and moral conditions of postwar Italy, reflecting the changes in the Italian psyche and the conditions of everyday life: defeat, poverty, and desperation.
The movement was developed by a circle of film critics that revolved around the magazine Cinema. The neorealists were heavily influenced by French poetic realism. Elements of neorealism are also found in the films of Alessandro Blasetti and the documentary-style films of Francesco De Robertis. Two of the most significant precursors of neorealism are Toni (Renoir, 1935) and 1860 (Blasetti, 1934).

French New Wave France (1959-1964)

The New Wave filmmakers were linked by their self-conscious rejection of classical cinematic form and their spirit of youthful iconoclasm. Many also engaged in their work with the social and political upheavals of the era, making their radical experiments with editing, visual style, and narrative part of a general break with the conservative paradigm.

It holds that the director is the "author" of his movies, with a personal signature visible from film to film.

American New Wave/Indy Cinema        US 
American Independent Cinema/American New Wave or The New Hollywood' and 'post-classical cinema' are terms used to describe the period following the decline of the studio system in the '50s and '60s and the end of the production code. It is defined by a greater tendency to dramatize such things as sexuality and violence, and by the rising importance of blockbuster movies.

'Post-classical cinema' is a term used to describe the changing methods of storytelling in the New Hollywood. It has been argued that new approaches to drama and characterization played upon audience expectations acquired in the classical/Golden Age period: Although the 1970s opened with Hollywood experiencing a financial and artistic depression, the decade became a creative high point in the US film industry. Restrictions on language, adult content and sexuality, and violence had loosened up, and these elements became more widespread. And Hollywood was renewed and reborn with the earlier collapse of the studio system, and the works of many new and experimental film-makers