Wednesday, 30 December 2015

Evolutionary Theories

“Evolution” was one of the most exciting ideas of the 19th century. The naturalist Charles Darwin. Darwin developed the concept of “Evolution” in his “Origin of Species – 1859.” Spencer, who is one of a  sociological giant of the 19th century, was captivated by the idea of evolution. He saw social evolution as “a set of stages through which all the societies moved from simple to the complex and from the homogenous to the heterogeneous.

Meaning of the Concept of “Evolution”:
The term “evolution” comes from the latin word “evolvere” which means “to develop” or to “unfold.” It closely corresponds to the Sanskrit word “Vikas”. It indicates changes from “within” and not from “without”-, it is sponta­neous, but not automatic. It implies continuous change that takes place especially in some structure.

Meaning of “Social Evolution”:
 “Social evolution” is used to explain the evolution of human society or  the evolution of man’s social relations. The theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man.

Many different theories were propounded to define and explain social change. Theories of nineteenth century may be divided into 
  1. theories of social evolution (Saint-Simon, Comte, Spencer, Durkheim etc.) 
  2. and theories of social revolution (Marx).

Evolutionary theories
Evolutionary theories are based on the assumption that societies gradually change from simple beginnings into even more complex forms. . According to them social change meant progress toward something better change as positive and beneficial. 
L.H Morgan believed that there were three basic stages in the process: savagery, barbarism and civilization.
 This evolutionary view of social change was highly influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of Organic Evolution. Herbert Spencer a British sociologist argued that society itself is an organism. He  applied Darwin's principle of the survival of the fittest to human societies. He said that society has been gradually progressing towards a better state. He argued that it has evolved from military society to the industrial society. He claimed that western races, classes or societies had survived and evolved because they were better adapted to face the conditions of life. This view known as social Darwinism got widespread popularity in the late 19th century. It survived even during the first phase of the 20th century. 

Karl Marx was one of the first social scientists to focus mainly on social class. His main focus on social class was that one's social class dictated one's social life.Basically, Marx meant that if one is in the upper class, life was one of leisure and abundance, while those in the lower class lived lives of hardship and poverty.
Marx wanted to better understand how so many people could be in poverty in a world where there was an abundance of wealth. His answer was simple: capitalism.
Capitalism is an economic system where the means of production is owned by private individuals. In this system, the economy and the use of resources are controlled by individual business owners and private companies. A capitalist system is also known as free market enterprise.The main focus of capitalism is profit - businesses exist to make money.  Essentially, the purpose of capitalism is the accumulation of as much wealth for the owners as possible.

Key concepts in Development

Self Reliance 

Self Reliance can also be defined as the freedom and liberty that a person posses. Self reliance means to depend on  ourself  or trust on one's own capabilities, judgment, resources and independence,and strengths in all situations.  Self reliance shows a high rate of independence in an individual.  It eliminates the need for external help in their functioning and in their general well being.

Culture Identity

 Culture refers to the customs, practices, languages, values  and  that define social groups  based on nationality, ethnicity, region or common interests. Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationalityethnicityreligionsocial classgenerationlocality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture.  Cultural identity is important for people’s sense of self and how they relate to others. 


“Decentralisation refers to systematic effort to delegate authority to the lowest levels from at central points.” —Louis A. Allen.   However, strong cultural identity expressed in the wrong way can contribute to barriers between groups. Members of smaller cultural groups can feel excluded from society if others obstruct, or are intolerant of, their cultural practices. example in understanding of different religious group.Decentralisation can be viewed as an extension of delegation. Decentralisation is just opposite to centralization the degree of decentralisation is determined by Nature of the authority delegated, Under centralisation, authority is mostly concentrated at the top level management. 

Advantages / Importance of Decentralization:

Decentralisation helps to improve the quality of decisions-making at the top level management, Decentralisation facilitates diversification of activities, Decentralisation improves motivation Decentralisation makes decision-making quicker and better,  Decentralisation facilitates quick and result-oriented decisions by concerned persons. Decentralisation provides opportunity to learn by doing,, Decentralisation can be extremely beneficial.
Some disadvantages of decentralisation are: 1. Uniform policies not Followed,,2. Problem of Co-Ordination,  3. More Financial Burden,  4. Require Qualified Personnel, 5. Conflict:

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Definition of 'Industrialization

Industrialization started in England with the industrial revolution in the 18th century. It spread first to parts of Europe, and to North America. In the 20th century industrialization spread to most other countries. In most areas of the world, countries have industrialised. Most have economies based around one or more key industries. The rates of industrializations throughout history have differed
Industrialization (or Industrialisation) is a process that happens in countries when they start to use machines to do work that was once done by people.  During the industrialisation of a country people leave farming work to take higher paid jobs in factories in towns.
Industrialization  becomes possible to produce more goods in a shorter amount of time.Characteristics of industrialization include the use of technological innovation to solve problems.Industrialization refers to creation of industries, expansion of industries and use of modern technique of production in industries

Wednesday, 23 December 2015

How to set up a story?

There's a law in physics called Newton's Third Law of Motion, which states that "for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.' Which means, basically, that everything is related. We exist in relationship to each other, we exist in relationship to the Earth, we exist in relationship to all living things, and we exist in relation­ship to the universe.

A screenplay is a whole, and exists in direct relationship to its parts. 

How to set up a story?

A screenplay is a story told with pictures, so it's important to set up your story visually. Setting up a story by explaining things through dialogue, slows down the action and prevent(impedes/hinders ) the story progression. . The reader must know who the main character is, what the dramatic premise is, what the story is about, and the dramatic situation—the circumstances surrounding the action.  These elements must be introduced within the first ten pages,
 The first ten pages set up the entire screenplay.Act I is a unit of dramatic action that is approximately twenty or thirty pages long; it begins at the beginning of the screenplay and goes to the Plot Point at the end of Act I. It is held together with the dramatic context known as the setup.
 This unit of dramatic action sets up a story; it sets up the situation and the relation­ships between the characters, and establishes the necessary information so the reader knows what's happening and the story can unfold clearly. The first ten pages of  screenplay, as mentioned, establish three specific things. The main character is introduced so we know who the story is about. 

Define subject of a screen play.-Endings and Beginnings

The subject of a screenplay is defined as the action—what happens—and the character—whom it happens to. 
There are two kinds of action
physical action : a car chase and emotional action; a crying.  
We can broke the concept of character  down into two componentsinterior and ex­terior. 

Define of screenplay structure.
 The definition of screenplay structure is "a linear progression of related incidents, episodes, and events leading to a dramatic resolution. That means your story moves forward from beginning to end.  
We have got approximately ten pages (about ten minutes) to establish three things to your reader or audience: 
(1) who is your main char­acter? 
(2) what is the dramatic premise—that is, what's your story about? and 
(3) what is the dramatic situation—the circumstances surrounding our story?

What's the best way to open your screenplay? 
The first thing you have to know:  the resolution that is. the ending of our story?  
Resolution means solution; how is our story resolved? What is the solution? Does our character live or die? Get married or divorced? Win the race or not? The ending is the first thing we must know before we begin writing.  

Our story always moves forward—it follows a path, a direction, a line of progression from beginning to end. Direction is defined as a line of development, the path along which something lies.  

Resolution means "a solution or explanation'  When we are laying out our story line, building it, putting it together, scene by scene, act by act,  we must first determine the resolution. The resolution must be clear in our mind before we write one word on paper; it is context, it holds the ending in place. 
Our story is really a journey, the end its destination. It seems that one of the major difficulties screenwriters deal with is the problem of endings: how to end your screenplay so it work effectively, so it's satisfying and fulfilling, so it makes an emotional impact on the reader and audience, so it's not contrived or pre­dictable, so it's real, believable, not forced or fabricated; an ending that resolves all the main story points; an ending, in short, that works. The end of one thing is always the beginning of something else. 

In Kaka Muttai the kids got PIza how the piza seller solve the problem  . Like wise In IRUTHI SUTRU whether she got national award or not?whether the coach make her winner or looser 

The screenwriter's job is to keep the reader turning pages. The first ten pages of our screenplay are absolutely the most crucial. Within the first ten pages, a reader will know whether your story is working or not, whether it's been set up or not. 

An opening can be visually active and exciting, grabbing the au­dience immediately. Another kind of opening is expository, slower-paced in establishing character and situation: Our story determines the type of opening we choose. The opening of our screenplay has to be well thought out and visually designed to illustrate what our story is about. 

Before we write one shot, one word of dialogue on paper, we must know four things:  ending,  beginning, Plot Point I, and Plot Point II. In that order. these four elements, these four incidents, episodes, or events, are the cornerstones, the foundation, of our screenplay. 

The opening of our script will determine whether the reader continues reading our screenplay or not. The reader must know three things within these first few pages of the script:
 the character—who the story is about; 
the dramatic (or comedic) premise—what the story is about; and 
the situation—the circumstances surrounding the action. 
Within those first ten pages, the reader is going to make a decision about whether he/she likes or dislikes the material.

 what makes a good ending? 

First of all, by sat­isfying the story; audience want to feel full and satisfied.  The ending comes out of the beginning. Someone, or something, initiates an action, and how that action is resolved becomes the story line of the film. Endings and beginnings: two sides of the same coin.

 Source:Syd field Screen play -The foundations  of screen writing. page no 86-97
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