Friday, 6 October 2017

RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY & Indian Journalism

The Press is  aptly referred to as the fourth pillar of democracy other three pillars are Legislature, Executive and Judiciary . We consider press as free from bias and prejudice. Press reflects the realities of this world as wished by social and political world. The press tries to motivate, mesmerize or change the opinion of the people in such a way that people of a particular taste will be addicted to a particular newspaper. This is how a newspaper turns or moulds the language of the news as well in such a manner that it can fulfill its desired goal. It can represent murder and bloodshed along with love, mercy and kindness.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born in a famous family of Bengal in 1772. He was a great scholar of Sanskrit, Persian, and English and knew Arabic, Latin and Greek.

 Rammohan was a great champion of the freedom of the Press. His efforts to liberate the Press were made with the aim of education Indians about the affairs of the nation in their true perspective. He himself published newspapers in English, Bengali and Persian for the purpose of creating mass consciousness as a veritable check against the British authoritarianism. Besides being a great social reformer Ram Mohan also made a valuable contribution to Bengali literature and he is regarded as the father of Bengali prose. He was the first to realize the value of the newspapers as an instrument for diffusing intellectual light. His earliest books on Bengali prose were Vedanta – Grantha and Vedanta - Saar which were published in 1815 and 1816 respectively.
Contributions of Raja Ram Mohan Roy
 The study of the history of freedom of press reveals that Raja Ram Mohan Roy was an ardent(devoted) supporter and patronizer of freedom of press. He was a pioneer of Indian Journalism. He brought out journals in some major languages including Bengali, Persian and Hindi in order to create socio-cultural and political awareness among the people of India .  e was deeply devoted to the work of religious and socialreform, so he founded the 'Brahmo Samaj* in 1825. Hecondemned polytheism and idol worship and propagatedthe concept of one God. His religious ideas hadassimilated elements of Islam, Christianity, Hinduism andmodern European liberal philosophy. He translatedancient Indian works on religion and philosophy intoBengali.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was basically a social reformer who contributed significantly for the elimination of the Sati System and for the spread of Women Education in the country. He is truly said to be the ‘ 
Father of the Indian Journalism .
 Ram Mohan Roy tried to spread literary, political and scientific knowledge among the Indians. He had the intention of presenting popular demands and grievances before the Government by creating public opinion on current issues and topics. The purpose Raja Ram Mohan Roy had in mind could not be served properly if there was no freedom of press
Roy published magazines inEnglish, Hindi, Persian, andBengali. He publishedBrahmonical Magazine inEnglish in 1821.

With his inspiration following three newspapers came into being: 

1.  Sambad Kaumudi ,(Bengali); 2.  Mirat-ut Akhbar (Persian),        3. Brahminicial Magazine 

One notable magazine of his was the Sambad Kaumudi , published in1821. Samvad Kaumudi began under the editorship of  Bhabani Charan Banerjee. But Banerjee left the Newspaper after 13 issues because of the disputewith Roy on the points of Sati System and other  social reforms. Ram Mohan took charge of it. The Sambad Kaumudi was intended for the common people. Ram Mohan used the new Bengali prose style for the man in the street Banarjee launched a separate newspaper called ‘Samachar Chandrika’ and   promoted staunch Hindu values with its help.Sambad Kaumudi became bi-weekly in January1830 and continued for 33 years.

An article contained the description of the miserable condition of the Hindus suffering from caste prejudices. Another issue contained an advice to the Hindus to become tradesman rather than mere clerks. The paper also appealed to the government to establish trial by jury in the Zila and Provincial Courts. In Apirl 1822, Ram Mohan started Persian Weekly named the Mirat-ul-akhbar (Mirror of News). Through this paper he tried to communicate his political and social views to the educated elite according to their needs.
In 1822, Ram Mohan wrote an editorial about the trial protesting against the cruel treatment meted out to one Pratap Narayan Das who had succumbed to the injuries caused by whipping ordered by John Hayes, the Judge of Camilla. As a result of this Hayes was tried by the Supreme Court in April that year. Ram Mohan‟s editorial was translated into English, and published in the Calcutta Journal of May 14, 1822 by its editor, James Silk Buckingham who was a great friend of Ram Mohan. In all his publications Ram Mohan emphasized the important of subjects having educational value, besides those on politics and theology. During 1821 – 24 he published in the Mirat-ul-Akhbar several articles on scientific subjects like “Echo in Acoustics” Properties of the Magnet”, “Behaviour of fishes” Description of a Baloon, etc. His persistent Advocacy for the introduction of scientific education bore fruit long after his death. But there was a section of journalists which was opposed to the liberal attitude of Sambad Kaumudi.
2.  In 1822, Ram Mohanpublished MIRAT-UL-AKBAR in Persian language. The Mirat-ul-Akhbar happened to be the first journal in Persian language to be published in India. In the Prospectus of the Mirat-ul-Akhbar, published in the first issue of the weekly, Ram Mohan wrote that the object of the paper was not to shower praises upon its promoters or his well-wishers or to scandalize anybody. On the contrary, it aimed at reaching the truth, In its second issue Ram Mohan published his article on the British Constitution

3.Brahmonical Magazine ceased to exist after publication of few issues. But Sambad Kaumudi, a newsweekly, covered topics such as freedom of press, induction of Indians into high ranks of service and separation of the executive and judiciary.
Ram Mohan’s Role as a Journalist:-
Ram Mohan played an important role in promoting Indian Journalism. He was the first Indian to realize the value of the newspaper as an instrument for diffusing intellectual light.

 The first liberal paper to be published was the Bengali Gazette . Bengali weekly started in Calcutta in 1816 by the enthusiastic members of the Ram Mohan‟s Atmiya Sabha. The newspaper continued to be published till 1820.

The Serampore Christian Mission started another Bengali weekly, THE SAMACHAR DARPAN in 1817, and also published an English journal named THE FRIEND OF INDIA.

The first liberal newspaper in English, THE CALCUTTA JOURNAL, was brought out by James Silk Buckingham in October, 1818.

This was the group of the orthodox Hindus who started the SAMACHAR CHANDRIKA IN MARCH, 1822, counter act the zeal for reform of the Sambad Kaumudi . The Persian editorial of the Mirat-ul-Akhbar written by Ram Mohan were translated into English and were published in the Calcutta Journal, edited by James Silk Buckingham. In this editorial Ram Mohan revealed his great learning and deep knowledge of the political affairs of his time. Ram Mohan‟s editorial criticism of popular Christian faith, English foreign policy and of the British insolence on public roads towards the common people appeared too venomous for the British administration in India to swallow.

Soon the acting Governor- General came down with a heavy hand for the suppression of the liberty of the Press, and promulgated a new Press Ordinance, drastically curtailing free expression of opinion through the press.

Immediately after the enactment of the Ordinance, Ram Mohan closed down the Mirat-ul-Akhbar as a mark of protest. In the last issue of his paper, he declared his inability to go on publishing under” what he considered were degrading conditions and he lamented that he one of the most humble of men, should be no longer able to contribute towards the intellectual improvement of his countrymen. After suspension of the Mirat-ul-Akhbar in 1823 Ram Mohan became connected with several other periodicals, and continued his relentless crusades against irrationalism and suppression of freedom of the Press. In May 1829 English weekly, Bengal Herald was started by R.M. Martin in collaboration with Ram Mohan and Dwarkanath Tagore. It was a liberal periodical with a progressive outlook. It had also a corresponding Vernacular Publication called the Bangadoot printed in Bengali Persian and Hindi and was edited by Nilratan Haldar, a close associate of Ram Mohan. The Bengal Ankara the two leadings liberal English journals of the time in which Dwarkanath Tagore had large interests. Later Samuel Smith a leading book-seller and publisher of Calcutta purchased the Bengal Ankara, which happened to be one of the oldest and leading English papers in the early twenties of the nineteenth century. Under his editorship and guidance, the paper soon grew in popularity and usefulness. In the acquisition of this paper he was given substantial financial help by Dwarkanath Tagore. Dwarkanath was also one of the main proprietors of the India Gazette,

Raja Ram Mohan Roy, three more newspaper continued their  publication between 1821-1891. They were The Reformer’, ‘The Enquirer’ and Gyan Anveshan.  All these newspapers were the promoters of Progressive Hinduism.
Gaudiya Vyakaran is the last work of Ram Mohan. Before this he wrote a book of grammar in English entitled „Bengali Grammar in the English Language‟. Gaudiya Vyakaran was written by him for the School Book Society. The language of this book is very simple and it can well be called modern. Such simple style was unknown in those days of 1830‟s.Since Ram Mohan had his early education in Hindi knowing cities like patna and Varanasi he learnt the language well.

He wrote simple and lucid Hindi and his command over the language was a matter of wonder. His high attainment in Hindi language is testified to by the eminent critic Pandit HazariPrasad Dwivedi,

It is worthy of note that Ram Mohan Roy wrote Hindi prose in Devanagiri script .
Ram Mohan published Hindi translation of Vedanta Sutra in 1815.
In the following year he published another small book dealing with Shastrarth:
Soon Ram Mohan established himself as the third leading writer in Hindi in Devanagiri script.

He is hailed by the latter day critics and authors as the father of Bengali prose. Though there are prose‟s writing even prior to Ram Mohan his specific contributions created a great transformation in the literary genres of the Bengali language and also a social change in the society.

The British East India Company was against Freedom of press in India. But Raja Ram Mohan Roy strongly argued against this view. The company had the fear of public criticism under a free press. Ram Mohan Roy was successful in convincing the authority with his strong logic arguing that in India Freedom of press would not be harmful for the government as people had been loyal to it. Roy pointed out that freedom of press was helpful to both the government and the people.
A free press acts like a channel of communication between the two and solves many problems. People come to know about the plans, programmes, policies and intentions of the government through it. People also express their reactions and grievances through it thus making the governance more effective. A free press helps disseminate knowledge and boosts intellectual improvement. It allows creativity: gives literary, cultural and artistic knowledge and pleasure. The government comes to know about the defects of its policies and administration and gets a scope to remedy those before any crisis arises. Raja Ram Mohan Roy argued that a free press fails revolution and does not nourish it. He felt that there has not been a reduction of violence under a free press. On the contrary, a number of revolutions have taken place in those parts of the world where press freedom was denied. Due to lack of opportunity of expression grievances and discontentment of the people pile up and ultimately burst out in the form of a revolution.

 Ram Mohan Roy however, was not in favour of absolute freedom of press. In stead he wanted reasonable restrictions on it. He believed that those who try to incite hatred in the minds of the Indians against the British nation should be punished. Similarly, an attempt to provoke hostilities with neighbours and friendly states must be duly penalized. The notion of freedom of press as held by Roy was to ultimately establish in India the rule of law and not the rule of persons and their whims.

The Press Commission was established in India for the first time in 1956. After a lapse of ten years came the Press Council in 1966 for the freedom of press. the history of the Indian press when the then Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi curtailed the freedom of press in 1975 with the imposition of the Emergency. She did not allow the newspapers to expose the defence and internal affairs of our country. She was right in her way because it was against the country's safety and integrity. The year 2000 saw a milestone in the media with the passage of the ‘Freedom of Information Act’. 

Tuesday, 25 July 2017

Types of Lead

The opening of a news story - usually the first paragraph - is termed "the lead."The lead is the most important part of any newspaper story, because the reader usually decides whether to continue reading based on the lead. As a writer, we have to persuade the reader to stick with us. As a result, newspaper writers naturally struggle with their leads. The lead is also called as  “nut graph”, is a sentence or paragraph identifying the focus of the story.  

An 18-year-old  Mariappan high school student was killed late Wednesday when his  bicycle  struck a telephone pole near  Vannarpettai Tirunelveli.First, what are the Five Ws in this story?Who: Mariappan.What: Killed in a single-vehicle accident.When: 10:30 p.m. Wednesday.Where: Intersection of Highway 16 and Highway 2A.Why: bicycle struck telephone pole.
How: bicycle went out of control.

Types of leads

There are  types of leads and many, many variations thereof. These are:
The summary lead.
Summery lead answer several but not all of the basic questions 5Ws and 1 H.Summary leads are most effective, it follows subject-verb-object order. This order is favoured for broadcasting writing.. Active voice is preferable in print also broadcasting news.

தர்மபுரி: கர்நாடக அணைகளில் இருந்து திறந்து விடப்படும் நீரின் அளவு அதிகரித்து வருகிறது. இதனால் ஒகேனக்கலில் பரிசல் இயக்க தடை விதிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. நீர்வரத்து அதிகரித்துள்ளதால் முன்னெச்சரிக்கை நடவடிக்கையாக தடை விதிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளதாக மாவட்ட கலெக்டர் தெரிவித்துள்ளார். 

Updated Lead
This is a type of breaking news  referred to as a first day lead.Television and online news require immediacy so that this type of lead used.
புதுடில்லி: தமிழகத்தில் ஒருவர் உட்பட, இந்தியாவில் இதுவரை 4 பேருக்கு ஜிகா வைரஸ் தொற்று இருப்பதாக மத்திய அரசு தெரிவித்துள்ளது.
Impact leads
The impact lead explains how the readers and viewers will be affected by the issue. This type of lead is good for broadcasting. Impact leads can be written in a hard news summery form or in a more creative form such as soft lead

Attribution  in leads.
Attribution tells the reader where you got your information. We put the attribution at the beginning or end  of the sentences.
ex: Police Cheif John law says the suspect is in custody.  

Soft lead 
Soft lead can be fun to write and fun to read. They can be effective in broadcast writing. It also called as delayed lead.
ஐதராபாத்: போதைப் பொருள் கடத்தல் வழக்கில், தன்னை தொடர்புபடுத்தி பேசுவதால், தன் புகழுக்கு களங்கம் ஏற்பட்டுள்ளதாக, பிரபல தெலுங்கு நடிகை, சார்மி கவுர், 30, கூறியுள்ளார்.
Descriptive lead. 
This type of lead describe  a person, place, or event

Anecdotal Leads
this type of lead also starts with  story about  person or n event. 
Narrative Leads
A Narrative lead tells  story with enough dramatic action so readers can feel  if they are witnessing the event. Narrative writing uses all the techniques of fiction, including dialogue 

Contrast leads. 
This type of lead can be used to set up stories about conflicts or unusual circumstances. 

Teaser Leads
These leads use the element of surprise to tease the reader into the story. Broadcast news uses the concept of teasers before commercials to convince the audience to stay turned after the break, but teases are also effective in leads on broadcast stories.

Mystery leads
Like teasers , these leads promise the reader a  surprise or a trial for reading on. They set up the story like a mystery novel. They are fun to write fun to read, but they wont work unless the subject matter lends itself to this approach.
Question leads
These can be effective if reder is interested in finding the answer to the question you pose. 
In the suggested recast lead, the writer has chosen to name five of the six key points, but in more general fashion that allows for economy of words. How, and the remaining details, will be filled in later.
- Journalists call the opening of a news story "the lead."
- The lead is the most important part of any newspaper story, because it is based on the lead that most readers decide whether to continue reading.
- The lead must accurately summarize the facts of the story.
- The lead must be interesting enough to command and keep the reader's attention.
Keep leads simple especially for broadcast]
- The modern preference is to keep leads short.
- Economical use of words will benefit any news lead.
- A telling detail that sets a story apart from the others belong
 focus on person
Descriptive approach

Sunday, 16 July 2017

What is Journalism?

Journalism is the activity of gathering, assessing, creating, and presenting news and information. Journalism is a form of writing that tells people about things that really happened.
People who write journalism are called "journalists." They might work at newspapers, magazines, websites or for TV or radio stations.

What is Journalism?

Journalism is the act of gathering and presenting news and information. The term 'journalism' also refers to the news and information itself. The news and information can be presented in many different ways including articles, reports, broadcasts, or even tweets.
Journalism is a form of communication, but it is distinct from other forms. It is unique because it's a one-way message, or story, from the journalist to the audience. It's most unique because the message is not typically the journalist's personal story or subjective thoughts. Instead, the journalist acts as a channel, narrating an objective story about something that happened or is happening, based on his or her observations and discoveries. This type of storytelling comes in many different forms, including:
  • Breaking news
  • Feature stories
  • Investigative reports
  • Editorials
  • Reviews
  • Blogs
Journalism's unique storytelling comes in the form of reporting. To 'report' simply means to convey the facts of the story. Even in editorials and reviews, the journalist is conveying facts about the experience. The story can be analytical or interpretive and still be journalism.
In general, reporting comes from interviewing, studying, examining, documenting, assessing, and researching. New journalists are often taught to report on the five Ws, so you'll notice that most pieces of journalism include some or all of these:
  • Who was it
  • What did they do
  • Where were they
  • When did it happen
  • Why did it happen

Journalists work in many areas of life, finding and presenting information. we define journalists principally as men and women who present that information as news to the audiences of newspapers, magazines, radio or television stations or the Internet.

What do journalists do?

Within these different media, there are specialist tasks for journalists. In large organisations, the journalists may specialise in only one task. In small organisations, each journalist may have to do many different tasks. Here are some of the jobs journalists do:
Reporters gather information and present it in a written or spoken form in news stories, feature articles or documentaries. Reporters may work on the staff of news organisations, but may also work freelance, writing stories for whoever pays them.
General reporters cover all sorts of news stories, but some journalists specialise in certain areas such as reporting sport, politics or agriculture.

Sub-editors take the stories written by reporters and put them into a form, which suits the special needs of their particular newspaper, magazine, bulletin, or web page. Sub-editors do not usually gather information themselves. Their job is to concentrate on how the story can best be presented to their audience. They are often called subs. The person in charge of them is called the chief sub-editor, usually shortened to chief sub.

Photojournalists use photographs to tell the news. They either cover events with a reporter, taking photographs to illustrate the written story, or attend news events on their own, presenting both the pictures and a story or caption.

The editor is usually the person who makes the final decision about what is included in the newspaper, magazine or news bulletins. He or she is responsible for all the content and all the journalists. Editors may have deputies and assistants to help them.
The news editor is the person in charge of the news journalists. In small organisations, the news editor may make all the decisions about what stories to cover and who will do the work.
In larger organisations, the news editor may have a deputy, often called the chief of staff, whose special job is to assign reporters to the stories selected.
Feature writers work for newspapers and magazines, writing longer stories which usually give background to the news.
In small organisations the reporters themselves will write feature articles. The person in charge of features is usually called the features editor. Larger radio or television stations may have specialist staff producing current affairs programs - the broadcasting equivalent of the feature article. The person in charge of producing a particular current affairs program is usually called the producer and the person in charge of all the programs in that series is called the executive producer or EP.
Specialist writers may be employed to produce personal commentary columns or reviews of things such as books, films, art or performances. They are usually selected for their knowledge about certain subjects or their ability to write well. Again, small organisations may use general reporters for some or all of these tasks.

Friday, 31 March 2017

Study Paper - Portfolio
Image result for portfolio cover
This is my personal portfolio design. I did this for my final assignment for Professional Development subject in UiTM.Please leave any comment.Thank you.
Submit with in April 3

  1. Self Introduction
  2. Resume
  3. Show Reel of my Introduction
  4. Who am I?
  5. As A Viscom Student who am I?
  6. A speech
  7. A blog or Website
  8. Interview
  9. Portfolio
Related image

Bonafide Certificate

April 2017


This is to certify that, this work  titled “Basic Photography” is a bonafide work of  STUDENTS NAME (ROLL NO) who carried out the photography project under the supervision of  Prof.. J. P. Josephine Mary.
This work is submitted as the partial fulfillment of the requirement for
the award of the degree of subject Basic Photography of  my best knowledge.
This study reported herein, does not form part of any other project on the basis of which a degree or an award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this on any other institution.

Study Supervisor.                                                          Head of the Department.

Prof. J. P. Josephine Mary.                                           Rev. Fr. Kingsley SJ

External Examiner
                                                (Signature with seal)

Office Seal:

Tuesday, 14 March 2017

Photography notes

What is  ISO
 ISO denotes is how sensitive the image sensor is to the amount of light present. For example, in solid daylight you should often never need to go over an ISO of 100. Whereas at night, you might have to set it to around 800.
The only disadvantage of having the ISO higher is that the images are subjected to much more noise.
What Is Shutter Speed?
 Setting the Shutter speed to  decide  the camera how much light want to enter into the camera. A shutter speed of 1/100th of a second is better for shooting high speed action, most commonly sports, whereas as a shutter speed of 30 seconds will allow you to capture photos of light streaks.
The shutter speed is often the most important part of the shot - if you are without a tripod you might find that you cannot go below ¼ second without blurry pictures.
What Is the Aperture?
Aperture lets more or less light into the camera,  the aperture sets the depth of field. When taking portraits you might want the background to be out of focus, so you simply select a larger aperture in order to do this.
In summary, as the iris opening decreases in size, the f-stop number increases.
What About a Flash?
A good photographer should be able to know when to use flash or when it is not suitable. Most cameras have a built in flash, but these are often restricting and only light the objects close to you.
What Is Image Stabilisation?
Image stabilizing is simply a technique to reduce the blurring effects camera shake can have on an image. The image stabilizing is done automatically by the camera or lens.
 What Is a Telephoto Lens?
A telephoto lens is a lens designed to photograph long distances - an average telephoto lens can be from 70-200mm or 100-300mm, some even go up to 500mm.  For Taking Sports Photos using a telephoto lens.
 What Is a Wide Angle Lens?
Wide angles lenses are simply a lens which can photograph a wide area. Landscape photographers might prefer this in order to capture large fields or mountains. A wide angle lens tends to be around 12mm-24mm. The disadvantage is that they don’t really double up as anything else.
This image was shot at 18mm and allows for a large amount of the scene to be captured.
 What Is a Macro Lens?
Macro photography is capturing a subject at life-size or larger. A macro lens helps us achieve this, and a photographer interested in flowers or insects might use one in order to pick up more detail than the human eye can normally see.
 What Is a Fisheye Lens?
Fisheye lenses take extremely wide hemispherical images, and are often used for panoramic photography or to make sport photography more interesting, for example skateboarding. Dedicated fisheye lenses are quite expensive and not very commonly used.
If you want to play around with fisheye images you can get cheap adapters for less than $25 which attach to your current lens.
. What Is a Prime Lens?
A prime lens is simply a lens with a fixed distance, for example 50mm. These lenses are very fast and often have very low apertures. Most beginner’s have a negative view on prime lenses and think they are pointless compared to their 18-55mm kit lens.
Prime lenses teach you to move around and not just rely on your lens; you can often get a much better photo from moving a few steps than simply zooming in.
14. What Is Digital Zoom?
A digital zoom is zooming in on a spot using software on the camera rather than using a lens. Often this makes the images very pixilated and there is a very noticeable loss of quality. Digital zoom tends to be found on compact cameras as they often do not have interchangeable lenses.
If you can zoom in optically it is always the best choice.
16. What is RAW?
RAW is another mode you can shoot in, rather than JPEG. RAW offers many advantages over JPEG; it records all the details for exposure, white balance and more. It makes it easier to edit the photo afterwards if you do need to change anything.
Often RAW is a very rare mode to get on a compact camera but all SLR's can shoot it. For more detail on file formats check out An Introduction to Photo File Formats.
17. What Is Live View?
When purchasing a camera, you might come across the term “live view” this simply means that you view the image you wish to photograph on the camera's LCD screen, then you simply hit the shutter to capture that image. For some, this is preferable to looking through a viewfinder.
18. What About White Balance?
White balance is often ignored by most amateur photographers and just left on automatic. The reason we adjust white balance is to get the colors in your images as accurate as possible. Often the auto mode is good enough, but it can commonly get it wrong. You can set white balance manually, usually to:
  • Tungsten - For indoor lighting, which cools down your photo.
  • Fluorescent – For warming up your photo if under cool lighting.
  • Cloudy – Tends to warm everything up.
  • Flash – Warms up the cool light from your flash.
  • Shade – This will warm things up slightly due to cooler light of the shade.
To the average "point and shoot" photographer, the auto mode is good enough, but keep in mind the other modes if your photos seem to have incorrect colour tints under different environments.
I took each of these photos from the same postion and same settings apart from the white balance. I didn't use a flash (other than on the flash setting):
What Is a UV Filter?
A UV filter is a brilliant piece of kit, which is again often overlooked by beginners. What is does it simply protect the end of your lens from dirt, water and scratches. For a small investment you can help protect your expensive lens.

Like all glass, it's worth buying the best one you can, a cheaper unbranded one from eBay may, in fact, reduce the quality of the images which your camera can shoot. I would recommend a Hoya, Cokin or LEE filter as they are currently the best on the market.