Assignments and Seminar
Literature of Cinema
Learning how to make the script is very important to having a good film.
Filmmakers must have a
knowledge or an idea about how to get started, also how to complete the
script, or even how adapt the script to their particular needs and learn how to
make biggest impact on the script. It is essential to know that a good
script must ensure a huge success in their project. A film script is a linear structure that is
made up of many parts: Action, characters, music, visual imagery etc. All of
the parts make up the whole.
A film script is divided into three parts:
End- Act three
Beginning -Act one
In this section we establish the dramatic context known as the set up .The three unities of
dramatic action: time, place and action. Each has to be defined in act
The general rule of thumb, one page of script equals one minute of screen time.
We set up the story with 30
the characters, the dramatic premise, the situation (circumstances surrounding
the action) and establish the relationship between the main character and the
rest of the world he lives in. The first 10 minutes is critical because
we have to capture the audience and focus on establishing the main character,
the dramatic premise and the dramatic situation.
Middle- Act two
This section comprises approximately half of the script length. That
would be about 60
It is held together with a dramatic context of confrontation. During this
act, the main Character encounters obstacle after that keeps him or her from
achieving their dramatic need. Dramatic need means, what the main character
wants to win, gain, get or achieve during the screenplay. We must know the
dramatic need so that we can create obstacles, which creates confrontation or Conflict .
confrontation specifies What
drives the character forward through the action? What does he or she want? What
are his or her needs?
Resolution in a Screenplay is a
solution to the conflict that allows the main character to achieve their need
(happy ending) or fail (sad Ending). The ‘act three’ of our script should
be 3-5 pages in length, depending on
the anticipated length of our film.
Endings and beginnings are inexplicitly tied together like yin and Yang.
They cannot exist without each other. So it is with film, we need to create the
momentum for the life that will exist after the film is over. Start our film
with action. Or reveal something that the audience needs to know to understand
the story. Remember that it is a Visual telling of a story. Connect the two
ends of the film that beginning and end.
Components of Film script structure
structure of a film script is composed of three components:
each time the camera is triggered until it is stopped, that is a shot. The
length does not matter. A movie is composed of hundreds of shots.
a collections of shots that are related by subject. Scenes are often
established by location or time.
a series of scenes that are related by thematic structure, a single idea. For
example, the events leading up to a shift in the film. It is a
unit, a block of dramatic action unified by that idea.
Mise-en-scène and Framing
The Motorcycle DiariesbiopicmemoiriconicMarxistguerrillarevolutionaryChe Guevara
Point of View and Reader Positioning:
First Person Point of View
2. The conflict
This is an essential element in every short story. The conflict tells of some type of struggle:
There are several authorial methods of achieving this. It can occur when the author uses causally unrelated narratives teamwork together to build thematic unity. This usually involves two or three or more clearly defined narratives each with their own sets of characters. There is often little or no intermingling of characters or narrative events, simply two or three narratives existing alongside each other.
One of the problems this causes authors involves not letting the reader lose track of what's going on. Since there are so many stories happening at once, a lot more reader activity is required to keep track of the various narratives. Therefore time and place are usually
clearly defined: events often occur within a very specific time frame in a specific locale to keep the reader focused. In order to achieve a form of formal closure, there is usually an event at the end of the story that brings all characters to one location or at least affects
them all in some way.
Another way an author can use complex narrative structure is in inter layering many flashbacks, or introducing fantasy elements or stories within stories to make the story diverge from a central plot line while maintaining thematic unity.
- dream sequences
- different characters' point of view
- multiple plot lines converging at the end
- flash forwards
- different time frames
- pre-figuring of events that have not yet taken place
- circular plotting where we are led back to the beginning
- backwards storytelling, where the denouement is shown first and
explained through the plot.
Purpose of a short films