Monday, 31 October 2016

Indian Political System


India - with a population of a billion and a quarter and an electorate of 814 million (2014) - is the world's largest democracy.

Organisation of States

Administrative system of India

The current constitution came into force on 26 January 1950 and advocates the trinity of justice, liberty and equality for all citizens. The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 444 articles, 12 schedules and 98 amendments, with almost 120,000 words in its English language version.India is a huge country both demographically and geographically and consequently it operates a federal system of government. Below the national level, there are 28 States and seven Union Territories.The largest of India's states is Uttar Pradesh (UP) in the north of the country. With 207 million inhabitants, UP is the most populous state in India and is also the most populous country subdivision in the world. 


The head of state in India is the President. As members of an electoral college, around 4,500 members of the national parliament and state legislators are eligible to vote in the election of the President. The current President is Pranab Mukherjee.


In May 2014, Narendra Modi, , became PM.Ministers are then appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and these ministers collectively comprise the Council of Ministers.


THE LEGISLATIVE System

The lower house in the Indian political system is the Lok Sabha or House of the People. As set out in the Constitution, currently the size of the house is 545 - made up of 530 elected from the states, 13 elected from the territories, and two nominated from the Anglo-Indian community. By far the largest state representation is that of Uttar Pradesh with 80 members. 


The upper house in the Indian political system is the Rajya Sabha or Council of States. As set out in the Constitution, the Rajya Sabhahas has up to 250 members. 12 of these members are chosen by the President for their expertise in specific fields of art, literature, science, and social services. These members are known as nominated members. The remainder of the house – currently comprising 238 members - is elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in proportion to the unit's population. Again, of course, the largest state representation is that of Uttar Pradesh with 31 members. The method of election in the local legislatures is the single transferable vote.


THE JUDICIAL System
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority in civil, criminal and constitutional cases. Since 2008, the size of the court has been 31.
A judge is appointed to the Supreme Court by the President of India on the recommendation of the collegium — a closed group of the Chief Justice of India, the four most senior judges of the court, and the senior-most judge hailing from the high court of a prospective appointee.

Organisation of People

Social movements : Social movements are any broad social alliances of people who are connected through their shared interest in blocking or affecting social change. Social movements do not have to be formally organized. Multiple alliances may work separately for common causes and still be considered a social movement. Social movements are purposeful, organized groups striving to work toward a common goal. These groups might be attempting to create change

Interest groups: Interest groups Non-profit and usually voluntary organization whose members have a common cause for which they seek to influence public policy, without seeking political control. Their primary activities are lobbying the members of legislative bodies through contribution to political parties, working to elect sympathetic or pliable politicians, and conducting covert or open propaganda campaigns. The major types of interest groups are 

(1) Economic association, such as chambers of commerce, trade unio
ns, religious bodies, (2) Professional association, such as that of architects, doctors, lawyers, (3) Public interest group (PIG), such as 'Friends Of environment' who aim to benefit people beyond their membership, and (4) Special interest group (SIG), a subgroups formed within the framework of a larger or main group to focus on a very narrow area of interest.

Trade Union :Trade Unions in India are registered and file annual returns under the Trade Union Act (1926). a. As per the latest data, released for 2012, there were 16,154 trade unions which had a combined membership of 9.18 million (based on returns from 15 States - out of a total of 36 States).The Trade Union movement in India is largely divided along political lines and follows a pre-Independence pattern of overlapping interactions between political parties and unions. The net result of this type of system is debated as it has both advantages and disadvantages.
The firm or industry level trade unions are often affiliated to larger Federations. The largest Federations in the country represent labour at the National level and are known as Central Trade Union Organisations (CTUO). As of 2002, when the last Trade Union verification was carried out, there are 12 CTUOs recognised by the Ministry of Labour

Political party:political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests.While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized, and in how they operate, there are often many differences, and some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, and many represent very different ideologies than they did when first founded. In democracies, political parties are elected by the electorate to run a government. 

Civil Organisation
Civil society is the set of civic rights, including primarily everyone’s right to participate in Public life. These rights provide the compass which helps us to steer the right course between system of state with all its competences of power, and the corporate cartel of organizations and institutions which in some circumstances can be equally dangerous to freedom. Civil society must also have foundation in a mature democracy and a mature political culture. It can be built only if there is widespread determination on the part of society to demand respect for, and observance of, individual rights, and popular will to hold accountable anyone or any institution, which violates them. 
India is a civilized country with rich cultural heritage. With the advent of the Britishers, western values entered in this society. There was a conflict between the modernity and age old traditional values. While some blindly followed the modern life of the west, revivalists like Dayananda and Vivekananda wanted to reform the Hindu tradition making it suitable to modern period.
The Indian economy
The Indian economy is the world's twelfth largest according to market exchange rates. It is also the fourth largest economy by purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. From 1947 to 1991, the India Economic System was based on social democratic-based policies. The policies feature protectionism, extensive regulation and public ownership which led to slow growth and corruption. But the economy has moved to a market-based system with economic liberalization starting in 1991. The growth rate of the economy increased in 2000's with healthier economic reforms and policies. India became the second-fastest growing major economy in the world by 2008. The main agricultural products are rice, wheat, jute, tea, sugarcane, cotton, oilseed, poultry and fish. Textiles, steel, chemicals, information technology enabled services and software, food processing, petroleum, machinery, steel, and cement are the major industries. With a per capita income (nominal) of US $1016, it was ranked 142nd in the world (IMF 2008 estimate) and a per capita (PPP) of US$2,762 it was ranked 129th (IMF 2008 estimate). According to the WTO the economy accounted for 1.5% of world trade in 2007.
social organization of Indian society 
The blueprint for social organization of Indian society i.e. varna system, belief system and its relevance in understanding the system. VARNA SYSTEM In the Indian social system, Varna is only a reference category and not a functioning unit of social structure, and only refers broadly to the ascribed status of different jatis. It is also a classificatory device. In it, several jatis with similar ascribed ritual status are clustered together and are hierarchically graded. The three upper levels-the Brahman, the Kshatriya, and the Vaishya- are considered twice-born, as in addition to biological birth they are born a second time after initiation rites. The Sudra, the fourth level, includes a multiplicity of artisans and occupationally-specialized jatis who pursue clean, i.e. non-polluting occupations. Though the Varna hierarchy ends here, but there is a fifth level which accommodates those following supposedly unclean occupations that are believed to be polluting. They are Antyaja, i.e., outside the Varna system. They constitute what are known as the Dalit. 
Definitions of Caste Caste may be defined as a hereditary endogamous group which decides the individual’s status in the social stratification and his profession. Caste is also defined as an aggregate of persons whose share of obligations and privileges is fixed by birth, sanctioned and supported by magic and or religion
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