Wednesday, 28 October 2015

Steps in Perception-How the ways we perceive others shape our interaction with them

Steps in perception Process or How to perceiving others

Steps in the perception Process

Their are three steps in perception
Selection
Organisation
Interpretation

Selection
We have selected which data we will attend to. The selection may influence by our interest or motives and our emotional state that also shape what we select. 

Organisation
Another step is organisation. After selecting information from the environment we must arrange it in some meaningful way in order to make sense of the world. We call this stage Organisation.
We organize our perceptions of other people using perceptual schema . 
PHYSICAL  CONSTRUCT We classify people according to their appearance  beautiful, ugly fat or thin old or age.
 Rule constructs use social position student, attorney, wife etc
Interaction constructs focus on social behaviour friendly helpful aloof sarcastic etc
Psychological constructs refer to internal states of mind and dispositions confident, happy, insecure.

 the kind of constructs we use strongly affect the way relate to others.

Interpretation

We have selected and organised our perceptions and we interpret them in a way that makes some sort of sense. Interpretation plays a role in virtually every type of communication. 

There are several factors that cause us to interpret a persons behaviour in one way to another. that is

      1.  the degree of involvement
      2. relational satisfaction
      3. personal experience
      4. assumption about human behaviour
      5. Expectation
      6. knowledge of others





Monday, 12 October 2015

the Indian People’s Theatre Association, or IPTA

It established in 1943 at Mumbai’s Marwari School, the Indian People’s Theatre Association, or Ipta, has undergone several transmutation. Then the split in the Communist Party of India resulted in offshoots like Safdar Hashmi’s Jana Natya Manch forging their own identity in the 1970s. Ipta has more than 500 units in around 30 states and union territories, with more than 12,000 members.  It’s no longer the blacklisted organization of its early days, but it’s still largely independent of state  get festival and repertory grants from a governmental agency.

Origin of People’s Theatre in India

The Indian People’s Theatre Association (IPTA) was formed as the cultural front of the Communist Party of India (CPI) in 1942. It was the first national-level theatre movement in India, and primarily focused on proscenium plays1. IPTA regularly performed short skits and plays in working class apartment buildings, “where workers with their families would gather on one side or peep through the doors and windows of their dwellings” [Tanvir 2007 : 68]. One of the few street plays performed was Shanti Doot Kamgar (“Working Class : Harbinger of Peace”), inspired by the Chinese Revolution, where “communist activists would visit restaurants, and other public places, cook up some kind of quarrel between themselves, and when people’s attention was sufficiently drawn to them, one of them would scramble up on top of a table and deliver an agitational speech summoning support for the cause” [Tanvir 2007:68].

Post-independence, with several internal conflicts within the communist movement, IPTA gradually became defunct. By the late 1950s, it was formally dissolved as a national organisation, with only independent state units existing, including one in Delhi.

IPTA is considered one of the oldest associations of performing art in India. in fact, over the last five to six decades notable artists, musicians, writers, dancers, singers and directors have been a part of the Indian People's Theatre Association. Personalities like Amar Shaikh, Majrooh Sultanpuri, Homi Bhabha, Sombhu MitraKaifi Azmi, Shanti Bardhan, Krishanchander, Sahir Ludhianvi, Balraj Sahni, Mohan Segal, Harindranath Chattopadhyay were all a part of this IPTA. This made IPTA to be at the forefront of the Indian Theatre movement. 

It also conducts a summer theatre camp for children, and liaises with other Ipta branches in the state, like those in Raipur, Bilaspur, Bhilai, Dongargarh, Balco (Bharat Aluminium Co. Ltd) township and Ambikapur—each of which has its own set of activities.

Directors, actors, scriptwriters, lyricists, music directors and dance directors – a large spectrum of the talent that went into filmmaking – came from the IPTA, moulding the vision of the world that the film presented.6 In the IPTA documents on how to prepare for the VII Conference (1953), there is the following section: “Film: Since a large number of IPTA members and progressive writers and artistes are entering into the film world, due to the increasing demand of the people for healthy and realistic films, the present position of the film industry requires special study. 

One of the most significant dramas staged by Indian People's Theatre Association was Nabanna, a Bengali drama. The word literally refers to harvest and is a Bengali folk festival thet celebrated good yield of crops. The drama was penned down by Bijon Bhattacharya and directed by Sombhu Mitra. The Bengal of 1943 was bogged down by infamous famine. The play portrayed the predicament of the masses and indifference of the British government to the plight of the people. Other dramas that were staged by the IPTA include Nava Jiboner Gaan (Bengali) by Jyotirindra Moitra, Desha Sathi in Marathi, Prarambham in Telugu and Zubeida directed by Balraj Sahni. All these plays, in one way or the other, mirrored the sufferance of the common people due to the then economic and socio-political conditions. 

Voice of the streets -Safdar Hashmi



Safdar Hashmi
                   
Safdar Hashmi was a multifaceted artist and was constantly soaking up new influences and trying out new technologies. Safdar Hashmi’s birthday as the 20th National Street Theatre Day,  

According to  Safdar Hashmi Contemporary Indian street theatre has been drawing in equal measure  from our folk and classical drama as well as from Western drama .It is a twentieth century phenomenon, born of the specific needs of the working people living under capitalist and feudal exploitation.. Street theatre is basically a militant political theatre of protest. Its function is to agitate the people and to mobilise them behind fighting organisations.


                                              COURTESY: JAMAM

Moloyashree Hashmi at a performance of "Halla Bol" on January 4, 1989 three days after the attack on Safdar at the same spot on the outskirts of Delhi.

Street theatre
SURENDRA RAJAN/COURTESY: JANAM
Safdar Hashmi at a performance in the early 1980s.


THEATRE activist Safdar Hashmi was brutally attacked while performing a street play, Halla Bol, at Jhandapur village in Sahibabad, on the outskirts of Delhi, on January 1, 1989.

 Safdar and his team were staging the play as part of their campaign for Ramanand Jha, Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU)-supported candidate in the Ghaziabad municipal elections. Mukesh Sharma, the Congress(I)-backed "independent" candidate, apparently unnerved by the impact the play was making on the workers of the area, went with a horde of armed goons and attacked Safdar's group

When Safdar Hashmi was killed, he was 34 and had been a member of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) since the early 1970s. 

A bunch of student activists had revived the Delhi unit of the IPTA (Indian People’s Theatre Association), dormant since the late 1950s, in 1970-71, and began doing large, proscenium plays in the open for mass audiences of thousands. The break with the IPTA occurred in late 1972, partly for ideological reasons .  Thrown out of the IPTA, these young women and men formed Janam in March 1973 and continued to do large productions for huge audiences on stages erected in the open in and around Delhi.

In the aftermath of the Emergency (1975-77), it became impossible to do large plays. During the Emergency they had been totally destroyed. They needed our theatre in their reorganisation efforts but they had no funds.”

A new kind of theatre was now needed,   that a play that was 
(a) inexpensive 
(b) mobile and portable [and] 
(c) effective.” 
They read dozens of plays but none satisfied them. Janam decided to write its own plays. The first of these was Machine, a short, 13-minute play with a cast of six, acted in a circle with the audience on all sides, first performed on October 15, 1978. 

Safdar records how the idea of Machine emerged:
“There is a chemical factory… called Herig-India. The workers there did not have a union. They had two very ordinary demands… They wanted a place where they could park their bicycles and… a canteen where they could get a cup of tea… The management was not willing even to grant these demands… The workers went on strike and the guards opened fire, killing six workers. So this old Communist leader told me about this incident… and he said, ‘Why don’t you write a play about it?’”

The initial draft of Machine was written by Safdar (then 24) and another actor, and was finalised on the floor, where everyone present contributed. Machine is an abstract play, in a way. The machine, created very simply by human figures, is the symbolic representation of capitalism. The worker, the capitalist and the security officer are all parts of the machine; they are complementary parts of a system founded upon the exploitation of one by the other; their co-existence, then, is unequal.

 As the Narrator puts it:“They stay together, they work together. Owner and worker, goon and victim. And more: mill and grain, thakur and dalit. Always together, forever together!”

But of course the permanence of togetherness is illusory; an exploitative system breeds within it the seeds of its own destruction. The machine breaks down and comes to a grinding halt – the workers have revolted.

“After we sang the final song, the trade union delegates… lifted us on their shoulders. We became heroes… The next day we performed at the Boat Club for about 1,60,000 workers. So you see, our street theatre began very gloriously… A lot of people tape-recorded the play… A month after the rally we started getting reports from all around the country that people were performing Machine… They had… reconstructed it in their own languages.”

Ten years and a thousand shows later, Safdar still could not explain the success of Machine: “The workers absolutely love this play. I still do not understand [why], for it’s so simple… It is schematic, except that the dialogues are interesting. Everywhere they loved it, though… Perhaps it is something… abstract that appeals to them.” But Safdar has explained, here, the success of Machine:
 first, because of its not just “interesting” but stylised, lyrical, near-poetic prose;

 second, because it captures in its abstraction a very real, living truth and trusts its audiences to make the connection between the abstraction and the reality; 
third, because abstraction and brevity lend it a certain simplicity, without rendering it simplistic.


The following month, Janam prepared Aurat, which became one of the most successful and popular street plays in the country. Soon after came Teen Crore, on unemployment. This did not really work but became the basis for Raja ka Baja, which was done the following year and became a roaring success. In the meanwhile, in December 1979, Janam’s first election play, Aya Chunao, was performed extensively in Haryana.
Seven plays, then, in 14 months, totalling about 500 shows. For Janam has now done some 8,000 performances of nearly 80 street plays over the last 30 years – but the sheer diversity of output. Each of these seven plays of the first year is distinct in style and, even when not successful, well-crafted: not a moment is wasted, the action is tight, the language has flow, the dialogues are easy on the tongue and ear, the humour sharp but never unnecessary, the characters delineated with minimum effort (a turn of phrase here, a piece of costume there), the songs lyrical yet forceful.

The second major spurt in street theatre activity was not a spurt(move with a sudden burst of speed.); it was an explosion. This occurred in response to the attack on Janam on January 1, 1989, and the death of Safdar Hashmi as a result of this attack the following day. Janam was performing Halla Bol(Raise Your Voice), a play on a recent seven-day industrial strike led by the Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU).

After the attack and Safdar’s murder, 
Halla Bol became a rallying cry; it was performed by hundreds of old and new groups in several languages.  Doing the play became, by itself, a means of expressing anger, an emblem of protest, a gesture of resistance; the fact that Halla Bol is also quite a delightful, innovative play was nearly incidental. The attack on Janam and Safdar’s murder provoked nationwide (and international) protest. Street theatre, naturally, was at the very centre of these protests.

Thus, when artists decided to observe April 12, Safdar’s birthday, as the National Street Theatre Day, the response was staggering: 30,000 performances were done on that day in 1989. 

This was the figure compiled in Delhi after receiving specific information. There were many more performances, though no one knows how many.

Safdar did not see street theatre as a revolt against the proscenium theatreA( proscenium (Greek: προσκήνιον) is the area of a theatre surrounding the stage opening. Aproscenium arch is the arch over this area.) 

According to Safdar“Theatre cannot be dependent on the frills and the trappings which surround it. Drama is born with force and beauty in any empty space whether square, rectangular or circular. The play comes alive whether the spectators are on one or all sides, in darkness or in light… Theatre did not begin with proscenium, nor has its evolution reached the final stage with it.”But Safdar was also clear that street theatre artists had much to learn from the proscenium. 

Safdar was a multifaceted artist and was constantly soaking up new influences and trying out new technologies. He wrote a 
24-part television serial on adult literacy and 
women’s empowerment for the United Nations Children’s Fund; 
he wrote a number of songs and plays for children,
he designed posters for a number of mass organisations; 
he took photographs; 
and he conducted theatre workshops.

 He worked for a while at the West Bengal Information Centre in Delhi, and was instrumental in organising the first Ritwik Ghatak retrospective in the capital.

He also organised screenings of Cuban films, in particular those of Tomas Alea. He was a major force in rallying artists and intellectuals around larger issues of concern: at the time of the anti-Sikh riots in 1984 and subsequently in defence of secularism; in reviving the legacy of Premchand; in rallying artists and intellectuals in support of the seven-day strike in 1988.

As Habib Tanvir remembers: 
“Safdar was an extremely broad-minded man, in a political sense. He wanted to open a broad cultural front. He could write poetry and plays, paint, act and sing. His idea of a cultural front was not confined to theatre. He visualised painters, musicians, singers, dancers, writers and critics – all to be drawn into a movement out of common interest. He was a creative genius, endowed with the zeal, energy and determination of a far-sighted organiser and theatre visionary.” •wife about Safdar

Sudhanva Deshpande is an actor and director with Jana Natya Manch.

Wednesday, 7 October 2015

படுகளம்

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6PGYO3gz9U

சூழ்ச்சியால் பொன்னர்,சங்கர் கொல்லபட்ட இடம்.மாசி மாதம் மஹாசிவராத்திலிருந்து 7 நாட்கள் விழா நடைபெரும்,7ஆம் நாள் விழா மிகவும் பிரசித்திபெற்றது,கோவிலைச்சுற்றி 25க்கும் மேற்பட்ட நாடகம் நடத்தப்படும்http://wikimapia.org/10120600/%E0%AE%AA%E0%AE%9F%E0%AF%81%E0%AE%95%E0%AE%B3%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%8D

துரியோதனன் படுகளம் 

தமிழ்நாட்டின் வடபகுதியில், துரியோதனன் வதத்தை முன்வைத்து கிராமச்சடங்காக நிகழ்த்தப்படும்  நிகழ்வாகும் படுகளம்.

கூத்துப்பட்டறை நிறுவனரும் எழுத்தாளருமான ந.முத்துசாமி எழுதி அரங்கேற்றிய புகழ் பெற்ற நாடகங்களில் ஒன்று படுகளம். ந.முத்துசாமியின் புதல்வரும், அவருடைய நாடக இயக்கத்தில் பங்கேற்றவருமான ஓவியர் மு.நடேஷ், அந்த நாடகத்தை தன்னுடைய இயக்கத்தில் புதிய வடிவில் மார்ச் ஒன்றாம் தேதி மீண்டும் அரங்கேற்றினார்.
தமிழ்நாட்டின் வடபகுதியில், துரியோதனன் வதத்தை முன்வைத்து கிராமச்சடங்காக நிகழ்த்தப்படும் படுகளம் நிகழ்வை மையமாக வைத்து உருவாக்கப்பட்ட நவீன நாடகம் இது. மகாபாரத காலத்துக்கும்,நிகழ்காலத்துக்கும் இடையிலான உரையாடலாக இந்த நாடகத்தைப் பார்க்கலாம். மகாபாரதத்தின் 18-ம் நாள் போராட்டக் களனாக வடிவம் கொண்டு அன்றைய நிகழ்வுகளைப் பின்பற்றிச் செல்லும் நாடகம் இது. திரெளபதியின் துகிலுரிப்பு, கற்புநிலை, பெண்ணுடல், கொண்டாட்டம், சண்டைகளை முன்வைத்து பாத்திரங்களின் உரையாடல்கள் சமகாலத்துக்குக் கொண்டுவருகின்றன. கூத்திசைத்தும், ஆடியும், ஓடியும் நாடகத்தைப் பல தளங்களுக்கு நகர்த்தினார்கள் நடிகர்கள். நடிகர்களும் சாதாரண உடையமைப்புடன் கடந்த காலத்தைச் சமகாலத்துக்கு இழுத்து வரும் முனைப்பு கொண்டிருந்தனர்.http://tamil.thehindu.com/general/literature/%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%80%E0%AE%A3%E0%AF%8D%E0%AE%9F%E0%AF%81%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%8D-%E0%AE%AA%E0%AE%9F%E0%AF%81%E0%AE%95%E0%AE%B3%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%8D/article6971673.ece

Tuesday, 6 October 2015

GENDER AND LANGUAGE



Gender: a social construct (within the fields of cultural and gender studies, and the social sciences.General usage of the term gender began in the late 1960s and 1970s, increasingly appearing in the professional literature of the social sciences. The term helps in distinguishing those aspects of life that were more easily attributed or understood to be of social rather than biological origin (see e.g., Unger & Crawford, 1992).

Some of theorists and researchers though have find that some of significant difference between men and women speak. 

Content

On average men and women discuss different range of topics.Certain topics were common to both gender. Female friends spent much time discussing personal and domestic subjects, relationship problems, family health and weight food and clothing, men and other women. Women were more likely to gossip about close friends and family. By contrast men spent more time  gossiping about sports figures and media personalities. 

Reason for communicating    

Men discussions involve greater amount of joking and good natured teasing. By contrast women's conversations focus more frequently on feelings, relationships and personal problems.      Women use conversation  to pursue social needs. Female speech typically contain statements showing support  for the other person, demonstrations of equality and efforts to keep the conversation going.

Conversational style

Women ask more questions. Women's speech that is less powerful and more emotional than men. Women's talk was judged more aesthetic where as men's talk was seen as more dynamic, aggressive, and strong.                                                      
 According to Lakoff, women’s talk has the following properties: 1) A large set of words specific to their interests: e.g. colour words like magenta, shirr, dart (in sewing), etc. 2) “Empty” adjectives such as divine, precious, lovely, cute, etc. 3) Tag questions and rising intonation in statement contexts: What’s your name dear? Mary Smith? 4) Use of hedges 5) Use of intensive “so” 6) Hyper correct grammar: women are not supposed to talk rough 7) Super-politeness 8) Ask more questions  .  Women speak a language of connection and intimacy.  Men speak a language of status and independence

Boys: 
• Tend to play in large groups that are hierarchically structured • Their group has a leader • 
Status is negotiated via orders, or telling jokes/stories 
• Games have winners and losers 
• Boast about skills, size, ability 
Girls:
 • Tend to play in small groups or in pairs • 
The center of a girl’s social life is a best friend • Within the group, intimacy is the key • Differentiation is measured not by status, but by relative closeness • Many of their activities do not have winners and losers (e.g. in hopscotch or jump rope, everyone gets a turn). • Girls are not expected to boast (in fact they are encouraged to be humble), or give orders (they would be bossy) Girls do not focus on status in an obvious way. They just want to be liked.

Myth: Women talk more than men
However:  Research found that men talk more often (Eakins and Eakins): men’s turns 10.66 secs, women’s 3-10 secs at faculty meetings  At academic confernces (Swacker): women 40.7% of the presentations, 40% of audience. But only 27.2% asked questions. There seems to be an asymmetry between private and public speaking—Tannen’s rapport versus report talk