Ans. – The Indian constitution was drafted by
the Drafting Committee of the ‘Constituent Assembly.
Who was the chairman of the Constituent Assembly? Who was the Chairman of
the Drafting Committee?
Ans. – Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the Chairman of
Constituent Assembly. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of Drafting Committee.
-When was the Constitution adopted?
Ans. – The constitution was adopted on 26th
When did the Constitution come into force?
Ans. – The constitution came into force on 26th
According to the Preamble India is what kind of state?
Ans. – According to the original preamble India
is a Sovereign, Democratic Republic. By 42nd amendment of the constitution
India is made also a Socialist and Secular state.
-What are the political ideals, according to the Preamble India seeks to
Ans. – India seeks to secure to her people:
Justice: Social Economic and Political.
Liberty:of thought, expression, belief, faith and
Equality:of status and opportunity, and Fraternity,
assuring the dignity of the individual and unity of the nation.
How many Arts, are there in the Indian Constitution?
Ans. – The original constitution had 395 Arts
and 7 schedules. Now after the 80th amendment of the constitution there are 405
Arts and 10 schedules in the constitution.
-What is meant by “Secular and Socialist” as described in the Preamble?
Ans. – The preamble describes India to be a
secular state. It means that there is no established religion in India and that
state does not give any preference to any religion in India.
The 42nd amendment of the Indian constitution
makes India a socialist state. It means that the state shall abolish private
ownership of the means of production and distribution. This however has not yet
been achieved. On the other hand the state now encourages private ownership.
the significance of the terms “Sovereign, Democratic Republic” as mentioned in
Ans. – India is a sovereign state. It means the
state in India is the supreme authority over all men and all associations
within the country and is absolutely free from any outside control.
India is democratic. It means that in India
all governments are formed on the basis of popular support.
India is republic. It means all offices of
the state from the highest to the lowest are held on the basis of merit and no
office of the state is held on the basis of hereditary right.
How many states and union territories are there in the Indian Union?
Ans. – There are 25 states and 7 union
territories in the Indian Union.
What is the importance of Arts 370 of the Constitution?
Ans. – This Art gives the state of Jammu & Kashmir
a separate constitutional status. Laws passed by the Indian Parliament apply to
Jammu & Kashmir if they are accepted by the J. K. legislature.
Is the preamble to the Constitution justiciable in character?
Ans. – No. The preamble is not justiciable.
What is the necessity of the Preamble?
Ans. – The preamble is like an introduction to
the constitution. The courts use the preamble to clarify: the meaning of the
Law whenever there is an ambiguity.
Does the Indian Constitution recognize the principle of dual citizenship?
Ans. – Though India is a federation, the
principle of dual citizenship has not been accepted in the constitution. All
Indian’s are accepted as the citizens of India. There is no citizenship of the
– How many categories of fundamental rights of citizens has been
recognized by the Indian Constitution?
Ans. – Originally the constitution conferred on
the Indian citizens seven fundamental rights. They are (a) right to equality
(b) right to freedom (c) right against exploitation (d) right to religious
freedom. (e) right to education and culture (f) right to property and (g) right
to constitutional remedies:. At present there are six fundamental rights. Right
to private property has been removed from the list of fundamental rights by the
44th amendment of the constitution.
What is meant by equality in the eye of law?
Ans. – Equality in the eye of law as provided by
Art. 14 of the constitution mean that nobody is above the law. Law applies to
all persons equally.
What are the freedoms granted to citizens by Art 19 of the Constitution?
Ans. – Art 19 of the constitution grants six
freedoms to the citizens They are right to freedom of (I) expression, (2) to
assemble peaceably and without arms (3) to form association, (4) to move freely
in India, (5) to five anywhere in India and (6) to adopt any profession or
“India is a Secular State”. What
does it mean?
Ans. – Indian secularism means that the state
does not have any established religion, that people are free to practice and
profess any religion and that the state does not show any preference to any
What Arts of the Constitutions confer right to freedom of religion?
Ans. – Arts 25 to 28 confer right to freedom of
religion on the citizens.
Is possession of private property a Fundamental Right?
Ans. – Private property was a fundamental right
before the passing of 44th amendment of the constitution. Now the possession of
private property is an ordinary legal right and not a fundamental right.
-Do the members of the armed forces enjoy the Fundamental Rights given by
Ans. – The parliament may restrict the
fundamental rights by passing laws. Beyond such restrictions the members of the
Armed Forces enjoy their fundamental rights.
-What are principal duties of the Indian Citizens?
Ans. – Obeying the constitution, showing respect
to the national flag and the national anthem, defending India’s sovereignty,
integrity, and unity protecting national properties and upholding Indias
glorious mixed culture and also showing respect to woman are the principal
duties of the Indian citizens.
-When were the duties of the citizens added to the Constitution?
Ans. – Ten duties of the Indian citizens have
been added to the constitution by the 42nd amendment to the constitution.
In what chapter of the Constitution and in what Arts are the Directive
principles of the Constitution given?
Ans. – In chapter IV Arts 35-51 the directive
principle of the constitution are given.
-What is the principal difference between the directive principles and
the fundamental rights?
Ans. – The fundamental rights are justiciable
while the directive principals are non-justiciable i.e. the fundamental rights
are enforced by the courts while the directives are not enforced by the courts.
-Name four important directives given in the Indian Constitution?
Ans. – (1) The states should provide help in
cases of old age, unemployment and disability. (2) State should strive to
reduce inequality between individuals, groups and professions (3) State should
promote and foster rural cottage industries. (4) The state should provide
compulsory free primary education to children below 14 years if age.
– Name two directives based on the ideal of socialism?
Ans. – (A) The state should prevent concentration
of the ownership of the means of production in the hands of the few (Art. 39c).
(B) The state should provide help and
assistance in case of unemployment and disability.
-What directive is based on a Gandhian ideal?
Ans. -Art 45 of the constitution directs the
state to promote and foster Panchayeti Raj in India.
-What are the value and importance of the directive principles?
Ans. – The directive principles though
non-justiciable are not worthless. Sir B.N. Rao contends that the directives
are moral precepts. K.M. Panikkar holds that the directives promise India to
achieve economic socialism or economic democracy.
Indian Constitution And Media Law (Objective
Q: - 1 India is a
(d) None of
Q: - 2 Who is the father of constitution?
Jawahar Lal Nehru
Ganga Dhar tilak
Saheb Bheem Rao Ambedker
Q: - 3 Indian constitution was inacted on
(b) 26 August
(d) None of
Q: - 4 According to constitution India is
(d) None of
Q: - 5 India is a
(d) All of
Q: - 6 India is a
Presidential form of Govt.
Parliamentary form of Govt.
Executive form of Govt.
(d) All the
Q: - 7 Who is the first citizen of India?
Justice of India
Q: - 8 Who is the supreme custodian of
President of India
Justice of India
court of India
Q: - 9 Fundamental Rights are
Q: - 10 Right to life is
(a) Fundamental Right
(b) Human Rights
(c) Directive Policies
Q: - 11 Fundamental Rights are freezed during
(c) All type of emergencies
Q: - 12 Judiciary is the
(a) Part of Govt.
(b) Part of parliament
(c) Part of Executive
(d) Independent body
Q: - 13 Which Article in constitution is
specially for Independence of Press
(a) Article 13
(b) Article 15
(c) Article 17
(d) No separate Article
Q: - 14 Freedom of Press is given under
(a) Article 17
(b) Article 19
(c) Article 19-A
Q: - 15 Press council of India is specially
(b) Printing Industry
(c) Advertising Agency
Q: - 16 Press council of was established in
Q: - 17 Press council of India consists of
(a) 18 members
(b) 20 members
(c) 25 members
(d) 28 members
Q: - 18 Who may be the chairman of the Press
council of India?
(a) Any Minister
(b) Any eminent person
(c) Advocate General3
Q: - 19 Media is called
(a) 2 nd Pillar of democracy
(b) 3 rd Pillar of democracy
(c) 4 th Pillar of democracy
Q: - 20 Separation of the Judiciary from the
Executive has been provided in which of the following parts of the Indian
(a) The Preamble
(b) The Fundamental Rights
(c) The Directive Principles of State Policy
(d) The Seventh Schedule 4
Q1. Indian constitution is secular and
democratic by nature. Discuss
Q2. Define and Describe different types of
constitution in brief.
Q3. Is Indian constitution written or
unwritten? What do you understand by unwritten constitution?
Q4. Fundamental Rights are the democratic
Q5. Define and describe fundamental rights
given by Indian constitution.
Q6. How many Directive policies are given by
Indian constitution .What is its
Q7. What do you understand by Fundamental
Duties? What is its importance?
Q8. How many Fundamental Duties are described
by the constitution?
Q9. Rights without duties are harmful for
society rather than fruitful. How?
Q10. Freedom of press has been given by the
constitution under which Article ?
Q11. No separate provision for freedom of
press has been described in the constitution. Why?
Q12. What is the status of Fundamental Rights
during emergencies and why?
Q13. What do you understand by freedom of
expression What is its importance ?
Q14. Describe about Regulatory measures taken
to control and balance media?
Q15. What is press council of India? Describe
Q16. When and how press council of India was
Q17. What is the role and function of press
council of India. Discuss in brief.
Q18. Describe in brief about different media
Regulatory bodies and their function
Q19. Media is called fourth pillar of
democracy. What is its role and importance in strengthening democracy?
Q20. What do you understand by media ethics?
Why they are important?
Language Defined: : A set of symbols that expresses ideas and allows people to think and communicate with each other.
Language is symbolic
The words like virtually all language are symbols.Symbols are more than just labels. They are the way experience the word. The naming process operates in virtually every situation. We are ususally react to a stranger will depend on the symbols we can to categorize them as christian, jew, Hindu or Islam and so on.
• Symbol - something that is intended to stand
for something else other than itself.
– e.g. Words. The relationship between words and
their meanings is (mostly) arbitrary.
Language is Rule governed
Languages contain several types of rules Phonological Rules: govern how words sound when pronounced. Syntactic (sɪnˈtaktɪk) Rule: govern the structure of language the way symbols can be arranged Semantic (sɪˈmæn.tɪk/)Rules: deal with the meaning of specific words.Without semantic rules communication would be impossible, because each of us would use symbols in unique ways unintelligible to one another. Pragmatic Rule: govern how people use language in everyday interaction.
Power of Language : Language shape attitudes,
Naming: Names are one way to shape and reinforce a child 's personal identity. Name choice cal also be a powerful way to make a statement about cultural identity.
Credibility:An apparently legitimate speaker who utters an unintelligible message will be judged competent by an audience .
status: Several factors combine to create positive or negative impressions they are accent, choice of words, speech rate and even the age of a speaker. In most of cases speaker of standard dialect are rated as higher than non standard speaker in variety of ways.
Racism: The power of language to shape attitudes goes beyond individual cases and influences how we perceive entire groups of people.
Language reflect attitude:
Language reflects our attitudes feeling of control, attraction, commitment, responsibility. All these are reflected in the way we use language.
Power: Powerful speeches gets the desired results in mainstream.Powerful language always enhance friendly relationship, sharing power with others
Affiliation:Language can also be a way of building and demonstrating solidarity with others.
Attraction and Interest:The language they can use suggest their degree of interest and attraction towards a person, object or idea.
Trouble some Language :Slang and Jargon
Slang is a language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar co culture or other group. Slang consists of regionalisms terms that are understood by people who live in one geographic area but that are incomprehensible to outsiders. dog of china.Slang can be age related also
Jargon: The specialised vocabulary that functions as a kind of shorthand for people with common backgrounds and experience.Jargon can be a valuable kind of shorthand for people who understand its use.
Source: Understanding Human Communication, Tenth Indian Edition, Ronald B Adler, George Rodman, page no 72-78
Enthusiasm is shown through both the visual and auditory aspects
of our delivery of speech.
Visual aspects of
Delivery include appearance, movement, posture, facial expression, and eye
Appearance is not a presentation variable as much as preparation
variable. Speakers it seems are perceived to be more credible when they look
The way you walk to the front of your audience will express your
confidence and enthusiasm. Movement can also help you maintain contact with all
members of your audience.
speaking good posture means standing with your spine relatively straight your
shoulders relatively squared off and your feet angled t to keep your body from
falling over sideways.
expression on your face can be more meaningful to an audience than the words
you say. Your facial expression will reflect your involvement with your
message. Don’t try to fake it. Just get involved in your message. And your face
will take care of itself.
is perhaps the most important non verbal facet of delivery. Eye contact not
only increases your direct contact with your audience but also can be used to control
your nervousness. Direct eye contact is a form of reality testing.
Aspects of Delivery
Our para language - the way you use your voice
says a good deal about you especially
your sincerity and enthusiasm.
delivery should be loud enough so that your audience members can hear you. Everything Say but not loud they feel you are
speaking to someone in the next room.
speed in speaking is called your rate. There is a range of personal differences
in speaking rate. Normal speaking speed however is between 120 and 150 words
or lowness of your voice pitch is controlled by the frequency at which your
vocal folds vibrate as you push air through them. You should control your pitch
so that your listeners believe you are talking with them rather than performing
in front of them.
Source: Page No 344-345 Public communicationUnderstanding Human communication-Tenth Indian edition, Ronald B Adler& George Rodman, Oxford University press