Wednesday, 30 December 2015

Key concepts in Development

Self Reliance 

Self Reliance can also be defined as the freedom and liberty that a person posses. Self reliance means to depend on  ourself  or trust on one's own capabilities, judgment, resources and independence,and strengths in all situations.  Self reliance shows a high rate of independence in an individual.  It eliminates the need for external help in their functioning and in their general well being.

Culture Identity

 Culture refers to the customs, practices, languages, values  and  that define social groups  based on nationality, ethnicity, region or common interests. Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationalityethnicityreligionsocial classgenerationlocality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture.  Cultural identity is important for people’s sense of self and how they relate to others. 

Decentralisation

“Decentralisation refers to systematic effort to delegate authority to the lowest levels from at central points.” —Louis A. Allen.   However, strong cultural identity expressed in the wrong way can contribute to barriers between groups. Members of smaller cultural groups can feel excluded from society if others obstruct, or are intolerant of, their cultural practices. example in understanding of different religious group.Decentralisation can be viewed as an extension of delegation. Decentralisation is just opposite to centralization the degree of decentralisation is determined by Nature of the authority delegated, Under centralisation, authority is mostly concentrated at the top level management. 


Advantages / Importance of Decentralization:



Decentralisation helps to improve the quality of decisions-making at the top level management, Decentralisation facilitates diversification of activities, Decentralisation improves motivation Decentralisation makes decision-making quicker and better,  Decentralisation facilitates quick and result-oriented decisions by concerned persons. Decentralisation provides opportunity to learn by doing,, Decentralisation can be extremely beneficial.
Some disadvantages of decentralisation are: 1. Uniform policies not Followed,,2. Problem of Co-Ordination,  3. More Financial Burden,  4. Require Qualified Personnel, 5. Conflict:

Image result for Industrialization

Definition of 'Industrialization

Industrialization started in England with the industrial revolution in the 18th century. It spread first to parts of Europe, and to North America. In the 20th century industrialization spread to most other countries. In most areas of the world, countries have industrialised. Most have economies based around one or more key industries. The rates of industrializations throughout history have differed
Industrialization (or Industrialisation) is a process that happens in countries when they start to use machines to do work that was once done by people.  During the industrialisation of a country people leave farming work to take higher paid jobs in factories in towns.
Industrialization  becomes possible to produce more goods in a shorter amount of time.Characteristics of industrialization include the use of technological innovation to solve problems.Industrialization refers to creation of industries, expansion of industries and use of modern technique of production in industries

2 comments:

Post a Comment

Advertisement