This section involve the measurement of both behavior and attitudes.
We will examine five topics that have generated the most research interest:
- 1. the role of the media in socialization,
- 2. cultivation analysis,
- 3. the impact of TV advertising on children,
- 4. agenda setting, and
- 5. media exposure and cognitive skills.
Media and Socialization
we defined socialization as the ways in which an individual comes to adopt the behavior and values of a group. Socialization is a complex process extending over a number of years and involving various people and organizations, called agencies of socialization, who contribute in some degree to the socialization process.
the media, especially television, may play an important role in socialization when it comes to certain topics. Let us now look at evidence pinpointing some of these areas.
>> The Media as a Primary Source of Information
Learning is an important part of the socialization process, and the media serve as important sources of information for a wide range of topics, especially politics and public affairs. For example, a survey of sixth and seventh graders found that 80 percent named a mass medium as the source of most information about the president and vice president, 60 percent named a mass medium as the primary source of information .
Other research has shown that the media, primarily TV, serve as primary information sources for many age groups about a wide range of topics.
>> Shaping Attitudes, Perceptions, and Beliefs
The mass media also play an important role in the transmission of attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs. Several writers have suggested that, under certain conditions, the media (especially TV) may become important socialization agencies in determining the attitudes of young people. Specifically, TV will be an influential force when the following factors are operative:
All this means that, under certain conditions, TV will be an influential force in shaping what children think about certain topics. Moreover, they have specified some of the effects that may result when television does the socializing.
Creating Stereotypes In the study of media socialization, it is helpful to identify consistent themes or stereotypes present in media content. For instance, some 90 percent of TV crimes were solved; real-life law enforcement agencies are not nearly as effective. Television also over represents violent crimes, such as murder, rape, and armed robbery.Portrayed in the mass media. Islam men were typically portrayed main negative stereotypes: (1) terrorist, (2) arrogant
Cause of certain attitudes
some experimental evidence points to the media as the cause of certain attitudes, we cannot entirely rate out other interpretations. Nevertheless, it is likely that the link between media exposure and certain attitudes demonstrates reciprocal causation. What this means is best shown by an example. Watching violent TV shows might cause a youngster to hold favorable attitudes toward aggression. These favorable attitudes might then prompt him or her to watch more violent TV, which, in turn, might encourage more aggressive attitudes, and so on. The two factors might be said to be mutually causing one another.
The Absence of Alternative Information
Although television can affect young people's attitudes about matters for which the environment fails to provide firsthand experience or alternative sources of information.