Sunday, 22 January 2012

ROLE OF COMMUNICATION


MASS COMMUNICATION
Mass communication means simultaneous communication with the masses.  The vehicles of mass communication are known as mass media.  The mass media mainly belong to two major categories.
1)    Print Media
2)   Electronic Media
The print media include newspapers, books, pamphlets, while radio, TV, Satellite, CTV, Cinema, multimedia websites etc are the part of electronic media.
Roles of mass media:
            The communication scholars and researchers have identified four basic roles for the media.
            Surveilance,   Interpretation,         Socialization and      Entertainment
1)    Surveilance: This refers to the news and information role of mass media. This role can be sub divided into
 1) Warning surveillance
Warning Surveillance: associated with news media such as information about flood military attack and depressed economic conditions.
2)Instrumental surveillance: It is associated with both news and popular media.

2)   Interpretation: it is the function of media. It provides a context for new information and commentary about its significance and meaning. Traditionally newspapers provided such interpretation in their editorial and commentary sections.  Vast amount of television reporting seems to have blended the news reporting and commentary function.
3)   Socialization: Socialization roles have the transmission of values within a society.  Also media have to modeling of appropriate behavior and attitudes.  The socialization role for the media gives people a common discussion topic.
Media can be quote influential particularly on young people regarding common taste in fashion, hair styles, art, music.
Television and film have the greatest potential for socialization because they seem to be the most realistic.
It educates people and makes them capable on various fronts.
It generates enthusiasm in the minds of the specific subject and modify views on particular issues.
It provides information.
It helps in social revolution and transformation.
4)   Entertainment: it is related to the function of mass media.  Otherwise it is called the diversion function, because it diverts the audience from real world through film, television, paints have been able to attract audiences around the globe.
It has been subdivided into following three categories.
a)    Stimulation
b)   Relaxation
c)    Release

Other Functions:
Education:
Media upgrades the human knowledge by adding the new information through both conventional as well as unconventional methods; media enables the spread of education.
In the individual context
·         It provides knowledge
·         It gives way to commercial success
·         It enforces and adjusts behavioral pattern
·         It helps in socialization
·         It creates legends
Public watch Dog or Establishment of Democracy:
Mass media’s functions of shaping, guiding and reflecting the people is opinion has helps in establishment democracy.  This sort of use of media asserts critical awareness among the mass.
Safeguarding democrazy:
Mass media plays a very important role in political scenario access to public opinion is only possible through media.  Media is essential for both leaders and public.
In the organizational context:
It Serves as an essential tool for direction
It assists in decision making
It builds good employer and employee relations
It facilitates the basic management process
It promotes leadership effectiveness

Communication Science and theories !




Communication is a study of part of human communication.  According to Berger and Chaffee, 'communication science' defined  as Communication science seeks to understand the production, processing, and effects of symbol and signal systems by developing testable theories, containing lawful generalizations, that explain phenomena associated with production, processing, and effects.

It is difficult to defining the field because the developments of technology that have blurred the line between public and private communication and between mass and interpersonal communication.

According to Mcquil the study of communication has to be interdisciplinary and must adopt varied approaches and methods.
For instance, studying the speaking style of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., in an attempt to understand how he was able to become the leader of the civil rights movement is not, in our terms, an activity of communication science. But when the same scholar examines a large number of leaders of social movements in the hope of drawing a generalization about the relationship between communication style and effectiveness, the scholar is acting in the role of scientist. 
The key issue here is that science seeks to explain by developing general principles that can be used to account for specific events or classes of events. We ourselves are only engaged part of the time in communication science; much of our work is devoted to extra scientific concerns about communication activities and institutions in society.
 The scientists seek to predict and explain phenomena in addition to describing them. To accomplish the objective of explanation, theory is necessary. 
"What Communication Scientists Do," Berger and Chaffee offer a working definition of theory as "a set of constructs that are linked together by relational statements that are internally consistent with each other". Thus, theories provide a framework or model for explanations and predictions. The constructs included in them have to be defined "operationally" to enable testing them. 
In their view, agenda setting theory is a good example in that it can be measured—the hypothesis "that topics emphasized in the press would be topics people thing are important" was tested in the 1968 election campaign by McCombs and Shaw. 
According to Mc Quail  the study of communication has to be interdisciplinary   and must adopt varied approaches and methods.

Theories of communication
It provides the most basic and also most general ideas about mass communication with the particular reference to the many relations that exist between media and social and cultural life. 
There are different kinds of theory based on observation and logical argument. The main purpose of theory is to make sense of an observed reality and guide the collection and evaluation of evidence.
Theory deals with what media thought to be doing or not doing why they do what they do. There are five kinds of theory which are relevant to mass communication. These can be described as social, scientific, cultural, normative operation and every day theory.


Communication Pyramid

At each descending level of the pyramid indicated, there is as increasing number of cases to be found. Each level presents its own particular set of problems for research and theorizing.
There are several different kinds of communication network.

Below this level, there are even more and more varied types of communication network based on some shared feature of daily life on environment, an interest(music) need
—According to this criterion, mass communication involved several society wide communication process.



Mass Communication


Mass Communication
Mass communication is the extensive tool of group communication by the tools of mass communication such as books, the press, the cinema, radio, television, video and the internet. The term  mass communication came into use in the late 1930.

Daniel Lerner termed mass media  as mobility of multipliers and
  Wilbur Schramm considers them to be magic multipliers.

     
 Mass Communication is a communication at a distance with technology meditations, production transmission and reception.
Mass communication is characterized by the transmission of complex messages to large and diverse audiences using sophisticated technology and communication.
Mass media refers to the institution that provides such message, newspaper, magazines, television, radio film and multimedia websites.

Mass communication means different things to people.

Elements of mass communication:
      Source
      Message
      Channel
      Audience
      Feedback
      Noise

    1.   Source:The source of mass communication message, generally is a person or group operating within an organizational setting or a multiple entity.
Examples of sources are news reporters, television producers and magazine editors, film company ( work of different entity).

     2.   Messages:  Mass media messages are sophisticated and complex. The message in interpersonal communication may be simple words short sentences and elaborate. Eg. A magazine article, novel , newspaper colums, music, video and bill board advertisement.

     3.   Channels: Channels of mass media also called mass vehicle. It involves one or more  aspects of technology.
Camera , cable, modems and satellites

4.AudiencesAudiences are heterogeneous means that they are both large and diverse. They are made up of groups of people with dissimilar back ground, demographics and social, political 

5.Feedback:  It is minimal in mass media message is flow typically one way from source to receiver.

6.Noise: The noise  exists in the mass context. Noise may be sematic environmental or mechanical . It may be called as Barriers.Barriers are any abstacles or difficulties that come in the way of commercial.

Characteristics.
Mass media spread over a vast geographic area. Such audiences are brought together  by a single share interest in the particular message available through the mass medium.

The audience essentially remain anonymous but selfselected who turn to a particular television or who read particular magazine.

The most obvious features of the mass media is that they are designed to reach the many of more or anonymous audiences. There is exist only asymmetrical relation.

In here the sender is often the organisation it self or professional communicators(Journalist, producer, entertainer).  

The content or message of mass communication is typically manufactured in standardized ways and is used and repeated in identical forms. 

It has generally lost its uniqueness and originating through reproduction and over use.

Large scale distribution and reception.

One directional flow.

The key features of mass communication  is to reach the entire population rapidly and with much the same information, opinions and entertainment. Also the audience get stimulation in equal means of great impact and influence.




Definition and meaning of Communication?


Communication is the production and exchange of information with meaning by use of signs and symbols. It involves encoding and sending messages, receiving and decoding them, and interpreting the information and meaning.  Communication saturates all levels of human experience.

Communication is exchange of ideas and meanings between two persons.  Generally define communication as the process of transfer of information between two sources with meaning.
Thompson, the well-known sociologist defines communication is a form of action which take places in a social content and is related to question of economic, political, coercive and symbolic power in society.

Communication has been classified in to several types in terms of the verbal and non- verbal the technological and non- technological.

One common typology relates to the size a social group or the number of people involve in the  experience of communication .
they are


 Intrapersonal communication:
        Communication played a vital role in nation building and development. communication also acted as one of the sources for modernization. When one communication with himself to develop useful ideas. It is a individual reflection, contemplation and meditation.
       

Brainstorming:
        It is known that ideas orginate in the human mind and speech. It is the vehicle of thought. It was searching for a way to encourage creativity, to simulate innovative ideas.    It has been used for a wide variety of purpose, such as new product development improvement and adaptation proposing solution to social problems, management relations, communication marketing campaign and strategies.


Interpersonal Communication:
        It is otherwise called as dynamic communication. It is direct face to face communication between two person. It is in other words a dialogue or conversation without the intervention of another person or a machine like the telephone or a two way radio or television set
It is personal, direct, intimate mode of communication.  It is allowing for maximum interaction and exchange of message in word and gesture.
        It is more persuasive and influential than any other types of communication.
        It involves the interplay of words and gestures, the warmth of human closeness and in fact all the five senses (sight, Hearing, Touch, Smell, and Taste). In interpersonal communication, sharing at the most intimate and open level
        For instance,  Interpersonal communication between a medical representative and a doctor, clerk and a manager.

The Three Stages of Interpersonal communication:

1. Phatic Stage:
                It is initial exploratory stage of communication. It begins with a “hi!” or “Hello!” , “How are you?” , “Vanakkam”. The phatic stage is patterned according social and cultural norms and rituals.                      
2. Personal Stage:
                The second stage is called the personal stage. It introduces more personal element in to the conversation. In this stage even they are likely to willing to talk about personal matters, such as ones profession, the family and health problems.
3. The Intimate Stage:
                This stage is reserved for friends and relatives. In this stage communication reveal the innermost thoughts and feelings, their fears and joys, weakness and strengths.


Group Communication:
        Group communication is thus more complex process than interpersonal communication
        The theatre, religious service,  dance performance, carnivals, the kumbh mela, folk events, Dassara are examples of group communication. Village markets meals and local coffee shop are instances of informal group communication.
Group communication can be classified as
1)  Intra group communication where a communication take place in the small group of people in a same group. For Example, our class room, among our department.
2)  Intergroup communication, communication between various group of people. For Example, the communication between various department students.
3)  Organization Communication is the form of communication is used in business enterprises.

Difference between Group & Interpersonal Communication
Group Communication
Interpersonal communication
1.   The less personal and intimate is the possible   communication .
Involves the interplay of words and gestures and above all the warmth of human closeness.
2.   Tends to become more and more of monologue for participation become problematic
To understanding and participation
3.   The mutual participation and understanding among the members suffer much
Too understanding and participation
4.   Feedback is more difficult to measure
The feedback is instantaneous
5.   The art of effective public speaking is more necessary at the group level than at Interpersonal level
Face to face communication, more persuasive and influential communication.


Mass Communication
Mass communication is the extensive tool of group communication by the tools of mass communication such as books, the press, the cinema, radio, television, video and the internet.Mass Communication is a ommunication at a distance with technology meditations, production transmission and reception.

Daniel Lerner: termed mass media  as mobility of multipliers and       Wilbur Schramm considers them to be magic multipliers
      

Thursday, 19 January 2012

Westley and MacLean’s Model of Communication-1957


Westley and MacLean’s model of communication
is proposed by  Bruce Westley and Malcolm S. MacLean.
Westley served as a teacher at the University of Wisconsin,Malcolm was director of University of Journalism School and co founder of the University College at University of Minnesota.

This theory can be work under two contexts,they are Interpersonal and Mass communication. 
Model:


1, X2, X3 and X4….—are news articles or information, Feedback (f), Clients (A), Reader or Audience (B) and Gate Keeper (c)
Westely and Maclean realized that communication begins only when a person receives message from surroundings.

This model considers a strong relation between responds from surroundings and the process of communication.
Each receiver responds to the message they received based on their object of orientation.

Example:
Advertisement  given thro Television
A Television will receive many advertisement from their clients.
In this case, Television will broadcast the selected advertisement due to the time constraints.
Then, viewers can directly respond to the client or they can respond to the television which broadcast in the television.
If viewer responded to television, it will communicate the feedback to client./agency
X1, X2 and X3—are advertisement, Feedback (f), agency (A), Reader (B) and television/media (Gate Keeper) ©
Merits
  1. This model accounts for Feedback.
  2. It can account for both interpersonal communication and Mass communication.
  3. It is a predictive model of communication and very descriptive also.
  4. Westley and Maclean communication model is Two Dimensional.

Demerits

It cannot account for multi dimensions; this means this model will not be applicable for  typical communication events that involve broader context and wide range of communication messages.

HYPODERMIC NEEDLE THEORY

"Hypodermic needle theory"/Magic Bullet  Theory
The "hypodermic needle theory" implied mass media had
a direct,
immediate and 
powerful effect on its audiences.

The mass media in the 1940s and 1950s were perceived as a powerful influence on behavior change.
Several factors contributed to this "strong effects" theory of communication,  
The fast rise and popularization of radio and television
The emergence of the persuasion industries, such as advertising and propaganda
    eg. focused on the impact of motion pictures on children, and
Hitler's monopolization of the mass media during World war II to unify the German public behind the Nazi party

Core Assumptions and Statements 
1.The theory suggests that the mass media could influence a very large group of people directly and uniformly by ‘shooting’ or ‘injecting’ them with appropriate messages designed to trigger a desired response.
2.This theory (a bullet and a needle) suggest a powerful and direct flow of information from the sender to the receiver.
3.The bullet theory graphically suggests that the message is a bullet, fired from the "media gun" into the viewer's "head".
4. The hypodermic needle model suggests that media messages are injected straight into a passive audience which is immediately influenced by the message.
They express the view that the media is a dangerous means of communicating an idea because the receiver or audience is powerless to resist the impact of the message.
There is no escape from the effect of the message in these models. The population is seen as a sitting duck and passive.  They are seen as having a lot media material "shot" at them. People end up thinking what they are told because there is no other source of information.
Media theorists have classified the "War of the Worlds" broadcast as the archetypal example of the Magic Bullet Theory.This is exactly how the theory worked, by injecting the message directly into the "bloodstream" of the public, attempting to create a uniform thinking.

The effects of the broadcast suggested that the media could manipulate a passive and gullible public, leading theorists to believe this was one of the primary ways media authors shaped audience perception.