Subjective treatment.The camera treatment is called 'subjective' when the viewer is treated as a participant e.g. when the camera is addressed directly or when it imitates the viewpoint or movement of a character. We may be shown not only what a character sees, but how he or she sees it. A temporary 'first-person' use of camera as the character can be effective in conveying unusual states of mind or powerful experiences, such as dreaming, remembering, or moving very fast. If overused, it can draw too much attention to the camera. Moving the camera (or zooming) is a subjective camera effect, especially if the movement is not gradual or smooth.
The 'objective point of view' involves treating the viewer as an observer. A major example is the 'privileged point of view' which involves watching from omniscient vantage points. By Keeping the camera even as the subject moves towards or away from it is an objective camera effect.
Talk to camera. The sight of a person looking ('full face') and talking directly at the camera establishes their authority or 'expert' status with the audience. Only certain people are normally allowed to do this, such as announcers, presenters, newsreaders, weather forecasters, interviewers, anchor-persons, and, on special occasions (e.g. ministerial broadcasts), key public figures. The words of 'ordinary' people are normally mediated by an interviewer. In a play or film talking to camera clearly breaks out of naturalistic conventions (the speaker may seem like an obtrusive narrator). A short sequence of this kind in a 'factual' programme is called a 'piece to camera'.
Parallel development/parallel editing/cross-cutting. An intercut sequence of shots in which the camera shifts back and forth between one scene and another. Two distinct but related events seem to be happening at approximately the same time. A chase is a good example. Each scene serves as a cutaway for the other. Adds tension and excitement to dramatic action.
'Invisible editing'. This is the omniscient style of the realist feature films developed in Hollywood. The vast majority of narrative films are now edited in this way. The cuts are intended to be unobtrusive except for special dramatic shots. It supports rather than dominates the narrative: the story and the behaviour of its characters are the centre of attention. The technique gives the impression that the edits are always required are motivated by the events in the 'reality' that the camera is recording rather than the result of a desire to tell a story in a particular way. The 'seamlessness' convinces us of its 'realism', but its devices include:
- the use of matched cuts (rather than jump cuts);
- motivated cuts;
- changes of shot through camera movement;
- long takes;
- the use of the sound bridge;
- parallel development.
The editing isn't really 'invisible', but the conventions have become so familiar to visual literates that they no longer consciously notice them.
Montage/montage editing. In its broadest meaning, the process of cutting up film and editing it into the screened sequence. However, it may also be used to mean intellectual montage - the justaposition of short shots to represent action or ideas - or (especially in Hollywood), simply cutting between shots to condense a series of events. Intellectual montage is used to consciously convey subjective messages through the juxtaposition of shots which are related in composition or movement, through repetition of images, through cutting rhythm, detail or metaphor. Montage editing, unlike invisible editing, uses conspicuous techniques which may include: use of close- ups, relatively frequent cuts, dissolves, superimposition, fades and jump cuts. Such editing should suggest a particular meaning.
Narration of Television story-Covering a programme
Every item that is broadcast must be thoroughly researched and investigated primarily made a synopsis, it include shooting scripts, the time schedule, appointments with various persons in the city or outstation . Also the footage provided by the reporters on the spot is the main ingredient of the report. It has to be trimmed or edited for length weeding out repetitions or irrelevant material, and then matched with the spoken word. Inside the studio, a variety of special effects is available, and could be used for great effect in the presentations of the news capsules. These are slow motion, freeze, frames speedup, rotating and burst. Each one has a specific function in the narration and presentations if the story.
It is up to the anchorman to choose what he wants for maximum effects . The anchor man has to be aware of the kind of impact each shot will make on the viewer, and never give in to the temptation of over emphasizing an item or a story. Everything that is broadcast has to be edited exalt the fire, flood, accidents house collapse or building crash.
A good editor would talked honest care to ensure that few cuts he executed do not leave jerks and disorients the viewers from the main story. The editor uses a cut away shot to maintain continuity in the narration and the flow of the story. The cut away shots were shots before or after the main incidents. Thus cut away are the most important shots in television news .
Tone. The mood or atmosphere of a programme (e.g. ironic, comic, nostalgic, romantic).
Formats and other features
Shot. A single run of the camera or the piece of film resulting from such a run.
Scene. A dramatic unit composed of a single or several shots. A scene usually takes place in a continuous time period, in the same setting, and involves the same characters.
Sequence. A dramatic unit composed of several scenes, all linked together by their emotional and narrative momentum.