Monday, 31 January 2011
Social and Political Development
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a term that covers all technical means for processing and communication information.ICT tools can be
used to find explore, analyze, exchange and present information responsibly and without discrimination. ICT allows users to participate in a rapidly changing world in which work and activities are increasingly transformed by access to varied and developing technology. ICT can be employed to give users quick access to ideas and expenses from a wide range of people communities and cultures.
There are four important components of Information Technology. They are Hardware, Software, Communication and Content.
Ø Hardware includes satellite, telephone exchange, computer, and various electronic devices.
Ø Software is a mainly computer programmes which provide guidelines to the users.
Ø The Communication means connecting one to another,
Ø While the content is message
In the contemporary age, computer is hardware, while computer programme is software, if we want to access internet require a telephone set or V-sat ; it is called communication, The internet service provider (ISP) is the medium which connects us to the internet in order to reach the content.
In the contemporary technology medium is the message
IX Five Year Plan:
The IX Five Year Plan did not mention e-government, stress was laid on the entire IT section. 1%, 3% budget of the budget recommended for it.
The strategy followed during mid-nineties was to encourage the use of computers into the use of IT including the fast expanding internet. Some notable success is the railway reservation system and banking practices. Some states like Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat, Karnataka went in big way in using IT.
Importance of Information Technology in creating a competitive economy equipped to face the challenges and exploit the opportunities of the future.
ICT have increased international interconnectedness and speed up the process of globalization. By increasing speed of international communication ICT, have enabled corporations to outsource jobs with manufacturing and service sectors. ICT industry‘s revenue was estimated to be $ 1.2 trillion in 2006
In recent decades widespread incorporation of ICTs into many tiers of business, political processes and everyday life has caused fundamental restructuring of the global economy. ICTs has increased international interconnectness and speed up the process of globalization. They have been instrumental in the information revolution, facilitating the transition from industrial economies the manufacturing sector to knowledge economies.
ICTs in conjunction with globalization and the information revolution, have reshaped the workforce. Locations with no or minimal restrictions on wages, compensation and entitlements for workers there for become economically attractive as sites of production. This can lead to the exploitation of workers in developing countries and undermine the bargaining power of organized labour in developed countries.
Economic Development - Indian Approach:
Computers came to India in 1959, but were slow to catch on. There was a feeling amongst employees of the establishments introducing computers, would replace workers and result in loss of jobs.
In 1975, the Government of India took a conscious decision about introducing use of computers in the Government Department and program implemented with UNDP assistance. National Informatics Centre (NIC) was set up under the electronics commission. It was brought E-Government to India through networking and computers proliferation in the various organs of Government Central, State and District levels.
During 1985-90 a period before the spread of the internet, NIC reached out to 550 district headquarters in the country covering different terrains and varied levels of regional development.
Business Process Outsourcing(BPO)
BPO became a large employer in the field of technology. Because of abundant and cheap availability of labour in India, various foreign based companies have been getting their work in India.
ICT is a crucial element in developing third world countries by integrating them in to the Global Economy and by making global market more accessible. The World Bank has collaborated with the International Finance Corporation to promote access to ICT.
ICTs have impacted societies on many levels. They have extended the reach of public administration, leading to a centralization of regional management into urban centres.
They have led to new forms of employment in innovation and production of ICTs and a demand for highly skilled specialists.
The diffusion of ICTs within societies is varied, with some institutions and sections of society having greater access to ICTs then others. These divisions are reflected in the content of ICTs. For example, the English language, which is understood by only 10% of the world population accounts for approximately 80% of internet content.
Despite this imbalance in power relations, many social justice movements believe ICTs can be used to promote equality and empower marginalized groups. These groups advocate ICTs as a means of providing accessible and affordable information and as a platform for voices that might otherwise go unheard.
In order to provide to specific needs for improving Government services, NIC, established a nationwide ICT Network called, NIC NET. It get with gateway notes at about 55 points in Government Departments, and 550 in district headquarters. Through this program, a distributed database on village level information has been created for about 6 lakhs village of the country.
For citizens in urban areas, electronic billing and payment for the following utilities be introduced such as Electricity bills, Telephone bills, Water tax bills, Property tax payments, Road Tax.
E-Chaupal: It is an internet centre cum single window system offering various products and services to the villagers at reasonable rates and at the same time purchasing their products.
In the long run, citizens must have unique identification cards. The usefulness of the card needs to be driven home by making it a multipurpose card, which will help the citizen receive a number of benefits and services.
Government tendering should be integrated to eliminate the need for duplicate departmental systems they are,Suppliers Database,Integration of Financial System
The process of filing income tax return, sales tax return, service tax return is being made electronically.
E-governance is also gradually prospering on internet. IT can give significant contribution towards providing clean and transparent administration. It can play an important role in the successful implementation of Right To Information Act in the year 2005.Following services implemented they are
Ø Income tax Information System
Ø Customs and Central Excise Information System
Ø Career Guidance System for Youth
Ø Motor Vehicle Licenses
Ø Sales Tax return filing and making payment
Information Technology is increasingly permeating every fact of human endeavor and has radically transformed the way societies work, play gather, and access knowledge and the way they governed. The technologies do not straight forwardly determine political cultures; but it always coevolved to certain extent with the institutional structure around them. Communities engage in numerous forms of activity, some of which have greater significance for democratic values such as broad access to the means of collective cognition than others.
2) In traditional technology the producer and consumer relationship in a given genre and medium. But in here anybody can became a producer or consumer
The ICT sector has grown tremendously in our country. The Government of India has taken the following steps recently to promote the Information Technology in our country.
1) Information Technology Act : In order to provide legal sanction to the use of IT and prevent its misuse. The Government of India passed the IT Act 2000.
2) E-Commerce and E-Learning : E-Commerce and information security was initiated by Department of Information Technology. IT has taken the initiative of promoting e-learning as a potential methodology to complement the Government efforts to generate high quality high end man power in the area of Information Technology.
3) Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT): In CERT has been set up to ensure safety of the Government network.
4) Media Lab Asia : The Department of Information Technology has initiated the project Media Lab Asia in collaboration with Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The project aims at reaching the benefit of the ICT to the common man.
5) E-Governance : Various programmes have been launched with a view to reach the e-administration to all. The task of computerization of the land records and making it available on the internet for the public use is going on in various states. Apart from this various projects pertaining to birth death registration, transportation, Municipality, Grama Panchayat and community information centre are also going on at different places of the country.
6) Community Information Centres: The Department of Information Technology has implemented a scheme for setting up of 487 community information centres at Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur etc. To accelerate socio economic development of the region with projected outlay of Rs.242.00 Crore. The project has been implemented by NICSI.
7) Vidya Vahani and Gyan Vahini Project : The project aims at extending the IT facilities to all the schools and collages of the country.200 schools falling under seven districts and all the campuses of the Delhi University have been given computer connectivity so far under the pilot projects. Various universities of Uttar Pradesh and some other states have been connected under the UGC project.
8) Indian Language Technologies : In a multilingual country like India with only 5% population knowing English, it is essential that information processing and exchange software should be developed in local languages and be available at low cost for wider proliferation for the benefits of ICT.s
9) Braille in Indian Languages: A computerized Braille transcription and embossing system has been developed under Jai Vigyan National S&T mission, which can operate in English and all major languages. The equipment enables a school for visually handicapped children to easily generate reading material, class notes, question papers, training materials, etc., for the blind students.
10) National Institute for Smart Government : National Institute for Smart government (NISG) has been incorporated as a section 25 company under the Companies Act 1956 on May 29, 2002. The organization is excepted to play a pivotal role in channelizing private resource and competence into the national e-Governance effort.
11) Digital Library: This ambitious project aims at making ten lakh books available for the common man in digital form. Initially, these books will be available in English. President APJ Abdul Kalam inaugurated the university Digital Library Digital Portal in September 8, 2003.
12) High Performance Computing: The centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) has developed and commissioned PARAM Padma a terascale supercomputing system as its knowledge Park, Bangalore. It is the largest supercomputer developed by a country in Asia Pacific Region (outside Japan).
13) National Information Centre (NIC): National Informatics Centre (NIC) provides informatics service for the decision to Government offices/bodies at national, State, District and block levels. It offers network services over Ku-Band (TDMA, FTDMA, IPA and SCPC VSATs ), wireless metropolitan area network (MANs) and local area network (LANs) with NICNET gateway for internet resource, facilitating informatics service for decentralized planning, improvement in government service, and wider transparency of national and local government. NIC has set up a country based VSAT network (NICNET), first of its kind among the developing countries, linking about 600 Districts Administration, 28 state secretariats, and seven union NCT/UT Administrations.
14) Video Conferencing : video conferencing network has been set-up in all the districts of Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand through NICNET. Video conferencing facility has also been set up at Leh and Meumoa Blocks, the highest point in the world where on-line Video conferencing facility has been made available.
Network society also has an effect on political life. Castells names mediatization and globalisation as the two most important factors (Castells, 2006). When he analyses the connections between the media and politics he is reluctant to introduce television and especially the Internet as a kind of “persuasion machine”. Referring to the concepts developed by the school of reception theory, he directs our attention to the significance of the individual interpretation of the receptor. According to this, media contents do not have general interpretations; each interpretation is unique and strongly connected to the common interpretative framework of the individual.
16) Apart from the constant and universal presence of the media, globalisation has also caused significant changes in the political system. Castells is of the opinion that the development of network society is rocking the foundations of the institution of the nation state: since the network society operates globally, the state cannot work solely within a national framework any more. At the same time, there are serious cultural obstacles in the way of setting up a worldwide government that adjusts to the process of globalisation. With the construction of the network state, national governments may renounce part of their countries’ sovereignty. In Castells’ view, the European Union is the best example of this, where all the nation states are organized into a form of social, economic and political network (Castells, 2006).
Modern operation in New communication Technology
Teleconferencing: The telecommunication links required for conferencing system. Teleconferencing is a means by which individuals or group located at different places can exchange date, speech visual materials like graphs or diagrams or moving pictures. It is made possible by the integration of computer and communication. Depending on the particular application, scope and complexity involved in teleconferencing can be classified as computer teleconferencing, audio conferencing, Audio –Graphic conferencing, Video conferencing. It is accepted form of technology in advance countries especially for business communication. This technology popular in our country, because the necessary infrastructure like telephone links and satellite are already available.
- Minimal physical travel demanded of its participants.
- The significant factor is time saving,
- Economizing on time and travel
- Improving corporate efficiency
- Participator management
Teletext : Teletext is a form of broadcast technology by means of several pages of textual information(latest weather rep[ort, stock exchange figure)can be transmitted on an already existing television channel. TV station equipped with a teletext service , normally update the information in regular intervals, say very half an hour, for the benefit of the views. The Delhi Station of Doordarshan provides a teletext service on the second channel. About 300 teletext pages can be accommodated per TV channel and a collection of these pages goes by the name of teletext magazines. The magazine contains specific pages earmarked for national and international news, travel information, sports, local announcement, and weather report. A few main pages of the magazine also put out in the picture mode
Radio text : It is known as Radio date system (RDS). Radio text is a technology similar to Teletext but with the important different that it works in conjunction with FM Radio while teletext works on Television. It is to be seen as value added service on FM Radio.
Videotex : It is another form of interactive communication technology which is inside usage in several advanced countries. It operates with the help of the public telephone connection on the domestic TV set/ computer screen form integral component of a videotext system. Customer provided with videotext facilities can make use of it for such varied applications as electronic shopping, access to data bases, tele-banking, or exchanging messages with friends.
Telephone: Optical Fiber provides cheaper bandwidth for long distance communication. In this technology the ATM protocol allows for side by side data
Communication Satellite: Communication Satellites are owned by various individual nations as well as collectively by group of nation cater to several applications like broadcasting, television, and Telecommunication. INTELSAT (International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium) is an International body consisting of more than 90 member countries of India is one. The Satellite commissioned by INTELSAT cater to the collective needs of the members countries as per as mutually agreed tariff structure. Ground terminals known as earth stations for receiving or sending signals from or to the satellites are located in several places in the member countries.
In India two such earth stations have been established for the INTELSAT network one in Pune and the other near Dehradun. Most of the international telecommunication traffic and exchange with other countries of live coverage of events takes place via the INTELSAT network.
India credited with taking several major initiatives in the field of satellite communications. The famous SITE (Satellite Instructional Television Experiment) during 1975-76, in which about 2400 remote villages in the country were served with television programs via satellite.
Our country developed its own satellite system, INSAT (Indian National Satellite System) . INSAT is multipurpose satellite service catering to telecommunications, radio and TV transmission and weather forecasting.
Publishing: Many national newspapers which are published simultaneously from multiple location take advantage of satellite communicationfor instant transmission of their pages from the publishing center to another.
For example the Hindu has arrangements for publishing its Delhi edition by transmitting pages from Madras to Delhi through INSAT.
The star TV programs that we receive in our home TV set, reach us by means of satelliteSimilarly a long distance telephone call may get connected via satellite. Use of Information Technology in Journalism: Journalism is a field where use of information technology started in a natural and imperative manner. Information dissemination, an important objective of journalism is reflected by the term information technology. The contemporary journalism has been witnessing an efficient use of information technology. This use has given birth to web journalism as a new journalistic-genre. Apart from electronic media like Radio and TV, newspapers have also been using information technology for their works. Nowadays almost all the leading newspapers have their websites. The web newspapers (portal) have also come into existence. The www.tehalka.com and www.cobrapost.com are such portals. Media is the biggest user of V-SAT the latest satellite technology. The news is more benefited from the satellite technique and information technology. Earlier the news agencies had to spend a lot of money for sending the news stories to their clients through ticker lines (leased telephone lines). The communication with the clients is easier and faster now because of the V-SAT and internet. This efficient communication has curtailed the expenses of the news agencies up to one-fourth. More revolutionary changes are expected in the days to come in this field.
Human Communication has progressed through four distinct phases. Each phase is associated with a specific form of communication. Telecommunication is transmission over a distance for the purpose of communication. The age of Telecommunication began with Samuel Morse’s electronic Telegraph in 1837 and was perpetuated by Marconi’s wireless communication in 1901. George Stibitz was able to transmit problem using teletype On sep 11, 1940. Telecommunication predominated among forms of communication until the advent of the computer in 1946.
Features of new communication Technology
Interactivity: Interactivity is a property in which the new communication technologies. It is capable of a much higher degree of interactivity than offered by the traditional communication technologies. In traditional communication, there is limited interactivity occurs after considerable delay and claim only a marginal interactivity. While in new technology, the interactivity is the main property.
Convergent: There is an information flood because of the fibre optics, satellites and internet. In view of the cheap and easy availability of the IT, efforts are going on for the integration of radio, TV, computer and other modes of communication. This integration is feasible now because of the technological advancement. This integration, known as ‘convergence’ has been implemented in all the developed countries of the world. In India also convergence is in the process of implementation.
Synchronicity: The term synchronicity refers to that property of the medium whereby the simultaneous presence of all the participants in a communication exercise is not compulsory. For example, in computer network, facilities like “store & forward “enables the message to be retrieved at convenient time other than one at which the message has actually been sent.
Demassification: Demassification refers to the extent to which a given technology can lend individualized communication. Teleconferencing or computer communication is high in their degasification, while teletext is at lower end of the degasifications ladder.
Integrated system: Collectively, technologies of the types described above will permit development of highly integrated system that will accept and deliver information in any form. The basic language probably will be computer code, but “translators” quickly will bridge gaps between system.
Effort Required: The source provide access to more information but require much greater user involvement in retrieval.
- Media systems require different levels of user activity.
- Activity varies with user as well as media.
- Person-machine interaction is a unique form of communication.
The use of computer: It is in one form or other. In our country computer network are widely used by public sector organization , big business houses, government departments Airways, Indian Railways, Higher Educational institution Universities, etc for their day to day transactions and a few states such as Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh undertaking own computer network dedicated to managing their operations.
On a global level “internet” is the largest computer network which permeated almost all part of the world, composed thousands of interconnected networks mainly initiated by United States.